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Flashcards in Bio Class 6 Deck (35)
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1

When is it diploid vs haploid?

When homologous chromosome is present it is diploid, when it is not it is haploid

2

Prophase I

- DNA condenses, mitotic spindle forming, nuclear membrane breaks down
- synapsis (pair homologous chromosomes)
- crossing over - exchange of DNA

3

Tetrad

Pair of homologous chromosomes (4 chromosomes together

4

Metaphase I

Tetrads align at cell center

5

Anaphase I

Separate homologous chromosomes
Cytokinesis begins
Ring of actin forms (cleavage burrow)

6

Telophase I

- Reverse of prophase I
- Finish cytokinesis
At the end of meiosis I you have 2 haploid cells
Moves to meiosis II

7

Prophase II

similar to prophase I

8

Metaphase II

similar to metaphase I

9

Anaphase II

Separation of sister chromatids

10

Telophase II

similar to telophase I

11

End result of meiosis I & II

You have 4 cells, each with 23 chromosomes
All chromosomes are different from each other & parent ell

12

Meiosis is also called...

Reductive division

13

Nondysjunction

Failure to divide DNA during meiosis
Anaphase I failure: all 4 gametes are abnormal
Anaphase II failure: 2 will be normal, 2 will be abnormal

14

Gene

Piece of DNA that codes for product
- includes regulatory regions (eg. promoter, untranslated region)

15

Trait

- known as phenotype
- physical characteristics resulting from genes
a. Polymorphic
b. polygenic

16

Allele

Version of gene
Superscript differs in capital/lowercase

17

Polymorphic

many forms due to the expression of many alleles

18

Polygenic

many forms due to expression of many genes

19

Non-classical dominance

1. Incomplete dominance - heterozygote is blended phenotype; genotype will have 2 different uppercase letters

2. Codominance - alleles are expressed independently of each other at same time

3. Epistasis - dominance between genes (expression of one gene regulates expression of another gene)

20

Classical dominance

1 allele is dominant, 1 is recessive

21

Human ABO Blood group gene

On surface of RBC, you have an area that codes for protein on the surface
3 versions of alleles: Ia (codes for A protein), Ib (codes for B protein) & i (codes for no protein

22

Universal donor? Universal receipent?

Donor is: O- because no proteins to trigger reaction in recipient

Acceptor is: AB+ because has A/B/Rh factor

23

Blood typing Process

1. Rh factor: determined through classical dominance (R codes for Rh protein) r (doesn't)
RR or Rr = Rh+ / rr = Rh-

2. Complete blood type is combo of ABO and Rh genotype

3. Transfusion Reactions
- Immune system designed to recognize foreign proteins

24

Mendel's Laws

1. Law of Segregation
2. Law of Independent Assortment

25

Law of segregation

Alleles are separated during gamete formation (anaphase I + II)

26

Law of independent assortment

How one pair of alleles separates is independent of another pairs separation (depends on how chromosomes meet in metaphase)

Exception: If linked, it will not be independent

27

Mendel's Law

1. Law of segregation - Alleles are separated during gamete formation
2. Law of Independent Assortment - One pair of alleles separation is independent of another pairs separation

28

4 basic single gene crosses

1. Heterozygote x Heterozygote
Phenotype: 25% dominant, 50% hetero, 25% recessive
Genotype: 75% dominant, 25% recessive

2. Homozygote x same Homozygote
Phenotype: 100% parental
Genotype: 100% parental

3. Heterozygote x Homozygote (recessive/dominant)
Phenotype: 50% dominant, 50% homozygote x
Genotype: 50% heterozygote, 50% homozygote x

4. Homozygous dominant x homozygous recessive
Phenotype: 100% dominant
Genotype: 100% heterozygote

29

Rules of probability

Rule of multiplication (A & B happening at same time)
Probability (A and B) = prob (A) x prob (B)

Rules of addition (probability of A OR B happening at same time

Mutually exclusive (nothing in common)
prob (A) + prob (B)

Nonmutually exclusive
prob (A) + prob (B) - (prob A x prob B)

30

Linked genes

found close together on the same chromosome so when cross over happens it does not separate

To know if genes are linked, you have to look at F2 generation