Order of Operations

P = Parentheses E = Exponents M = Multiplication in order from left to right D = Division A = Addition in order from left to right S = Subtraction If an expression has parentheses within parentheses, work from the innermost out. This mnemonic will help you remember the order of operations: Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally (PEMDAS). Example: 30 – 5 × 4 + (7 – 3)2 ÷ 8 First, perform any operations within parentheses. 30 – 5 × 4 + 42 ÷ 8 Next, raise to any powers indicated by exponents. 30 – 5 × 4 + 16 ÷ 8 Then do all multiplication and division in order from left to right. 30 – 20 + 2 Last, do all addition and subtraction in order from left to right. 10 + 2 Answer: 12

Commutative Law

It doesn’t matter in what order the operation is performed. Addition and multiplication are both commutative, while division and subtraction are not commutative. Example: 5 + 8 = 8 + 5 2 × 6 = 6 × 2 3 – 2 ≠ 2 – 3 6 ÷ 2 ≠ 2 ÷ 6

Associative Law

The terms can be regrouped without changing the result. Addition and multiplication are also associative, while division and subtraction are not.

Distributive Law

Factoring

Numerator

Denominator

Equivalent Fractions

Radicals in the Denominator

Lowest Terms

Reducing a Fraction

Canceling in Fractions

Requirement for Adding or Subtracting

Fractions

Least Common Multiple

Multiplying Fractions

Dividing Fractions Procedure

Complex Fractions

Complex Fractions Simplifation Methods

Comparing Fractions

Common Fraction to Decimal Equivalencies

Benchmark Value

Digits and Places

Comparing Decimals- Technique

1/100

.01 OR 1%

1/50

.02 or 2%

1/40

.025

1/25

.04

1/20

.05

1/10

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