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What are the different types of action performed by the endocrine system? (give examples)

-Paracrine=the hormone acts locally by diffusing from its source to target cells in the neighborhood. e.g histamine from mast cells
-Autocrine= acts on the same cell that produced it e.g interleukins
-Neurocrine= The influence of nerves on endocrine tissue. e.g neurotransmitter noradrenaline.
-Endocrine= the hormone is distributed in blood and binds to distant target cells e.g insulin
-Neuroendocrine=released by neurons and carried by blood or other bodily fluids and act on distant cells e.g dopamine inhibition of prolactin release


What are the main characteristics of hormones?

- synthesised and secreted by specialised cells
-released into circulation
-exert effects on target cells distant from release site
-act slowly
- act either on one cell type ( eg GnRH) or many cells types (e.g oestrogen)


What is the role of the endocrine system?

-maintains homeostasis
-responds to changes in the environment( food,stress etc)
- important role in control of: growth, development,puberty,sexual maturation


Which hormones are derived from tyrosine?



What are the different classes of hormones?

-Tyrosine derivatives
-Peptide hormones
-Glycoprotein hormones
-Steroid hormones


Describe the structure of glycoprotein hormones

Alpha and Beta chains with carbohydrate
The alpha chain= species specific- common to all 4 glycoprotein hormones
The beta chain= hormone specific- responsible for specificity


Give eg's of glycoprotein hormones.



How does GnRH control release of LH& FSH

-Pulsatile release of GnRH release LH and FSH
-Sustained release of GnRH inhibit LH& FSH


What are the different types of hormone release?

- Pulsitile e.g GnRH pulse generator
-Circadian based on 24hour cycle e.g cortisol
-Diurnal synchronised to day/night cycle
-Infradian based on longer than 24hour cycle e.g menstrual cycle
-Seasonal e.g prolactin


What use can radioimmunoassay ( RIA) have in endocrinology

We can use RIA to assess hormone levels. As the conc. of hormone increases, the amount of antibody bound decreases. We can also use enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA)


What is the function of oestrogen receptor alpha

Activates transcription


What is the function of oestrogen receptor beta

Inhibits transcription


Where are thyroid hormones stored

stored in colloid as part of thyroglobulin.