Basic Concepts and Processes Ch 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Basic Concepts and Processes Ch 2 Deck (21)
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1

Absorption

process that occurs from the time a drug enters the body to the time it enters the bloodstream to be circulated

2

Agonist

drug that produces effects similar to those produced by naturally occurring hormones, neurotransmitters, and other substances

3

Antagonists

drug that inhibits cell function by occupying receptor sites

4

Antidote

substance that relieves, prevents, or counteracts the effect of a poison

5

Bioavailability

portion of a drug dose that reaches the systemic circulation and is available to act on body cells

6

Biotransformation

when drugs are altered from their original form into a new form by the body; also referred to as metabolism

7

Distribution

transport of drug molecules within the body; after a drug is injected or absorbed into the bloodstream, it is carried by the blood and tissue fluids to its sites of action, metabolism, and excretion

8

Enterohepatic recirculation

drugs or metabolites that are excreted in bile, reabsorbed from the small intestine, returned to the liver, metabolized, and eventually excreted in urine

9

Enzyme induction

production of larger amounts of drug-metabolizing enzymes by liver cells; process accelerates drug metabolism because larger amounts of enzymes (and more binding sites) allow larger amounts of a drug to be metabolized during a given time

10

Enzyme Inhibition

process in which a molecule binds to enzymes and inhibits their activity

11

excretion

elimination of a drug from the body; effective excretion requires adequate functioning of the circulatory system and of the organs of excretion (kidneys,bowel,lungs,skin)

12

first-pass effect

initial metabolism of some oral drugs as they are carried from the intestine to the liver by the portal circulatory system prior to reaching the systemic circulation for distribution to site of action

13

hypersensitivity

immune-mediated reaction to a drug

14

loading dose

dose larger than the regular prescribed daily dosage of a medication;used to attain a therapeutic blood level

15

maintenance dose

quantity of a drug that is needed to keep blood level and/or tissue levels at a steady rate or constant level

16

nephrotoxicity

toxic or damaging effect of a substance on the kidney;potentially serious because of renal damage interferes with drug excretion, causing drug accumulation and increased adverse effects

17

pharmacodynamics

reactions between living systems and drugs;drug actions on target cells and the resulting alterations in cellular biochemical reactions and functions

18

pharmacokinetics

drug movement through the body to reach sites of action, metabolism,and excretion

19

prodrugs

initially inactive drugs that exert no pharmacologic effect until they are metabolized

20

serum drug level

laboratory measurement of the amount of the drug in the blood at a particular time

21

serum half-life

time required for the serum concentration of a drug to decrease by 50%; also called elimination half-life