Basal Ganglia Pathology Flashcards Preview

Neuromuscular Section > Basal Ganglia Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Basal Ganglia Pathology Deck (12)
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1

Akinesia

In ability ot initiate movment and is seen in the late stages of PD

Associated with assumption and maintenance of fixed postures (freezing episodes)

Tremendous amount of effort is required to perform even the simplest motor activites

2

Athetosis

Slow, Involunatry, writhing, twisting, “wormlike” movements; frequently greater involved in distal UEs

Also referred to as athetoid movements

Pure athetosis is uncommon and typically present with spasticity, tonic spasms, or chorea

3

Bradykinesia

Decreased amplitude and velocity of voluntary movements

May be demonstrated in a variety of ways such as: decreased arm swings; slow, shuffling gait, difficulty initiation or changing direction; lack of facial expression; or difficulty stopping a movement once begun

4

Chorea

Characterized by involuntary, rapid, irregular, and jerky movements involving multiple joints.

Choreiform movements demonstrate irregular timing, are most apparent in the UE and cannot be voluntarily inhibited; associated with Huntington’s disease

5

Hemiballismus

Large-amplitude sudden violent, flailing motions of the arm and leg of one side of the body

Primary involvement is in the axial Nd proximal musculature of the limb

Hemiballismus results from a lesion of the contralateral subthalamic nucleus

6

Hyperkinesis

Abnormally increased muscle activity or movement

7

Hypokinesia

Decreased motor response especially to a specific stimulus

8

Rigidity

Increase in muscle tone causing greater resitance to passive movement

Tends to be more pronounced in the flexor muscles of the turnk and extremities causing activity limitations in such areas as: dressing, transfers, speech, eating, and postural control

Two kinds: lead-pipe rigidity and cog-wheel rigidity

9

Leadpipe rigidity

Uniform, constant resistance felt b the PT as the extremity is moved through a ROM

10

Cog-wheel rigidity

Considered a combination of the lead-pipe type with tremor. Characterized b a series of brief relaxations or “catches” as the extremity is passively moved

11

Resting Tremor

Typically disappear or decrease with purposeful movements, but may increase with emotional stress.

12

Where are tremors associated with basal ganglia lesions (eg PD) are frequently noted?

Distal UE in the form of “pill rolling” (looks as if a pill is being rolled bt two fingers and the thumb)