Flashcards in Atomic Theory Deck (19)
What are the three components of an atom?
What are Protons?
Protons are positively charged particles located in the nucleus (centre) of the atom. They have a relative mass of 1 amu (atomic mass unit)
What are Neutrons?
Neutrons are particles with no charge which are located in the nucleus (centre) of the atom. They have a relative mass of 1 amu (atomic mass unit)
What are Electrons?
Electrons are negatively charged particles located on the outer shells (electron clouds) of the atom. They have a relative mass of approximately 0 amu (atomic mass unit)
What is the overall charge of an atom?
Atoms have no overall charge as, when neutral the number of protons and electrons is equal and thus cancel each other out. This is not the case with ions.
What is the Atomic Number of an element?
The Atomic Number is the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom.
What is the Mass Number (Atomic Mass) of an element?
The Mass Number is the total number of protons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
How do you work out the number of protons in an atom?
Number of Protons = Atomic Number
How do you work out the number of neutrons in an atom?
Number of Neutrons = (Mass Number - Atomic Number)
How do you work out the number of electrons in an atom?
Number of Electrons = Atomic Number (When the atom is neutral)
What are isotopes?
Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different Mass Numbers due to them having different amounts of neutrons in the nucleus
What does RAM stand for?
Relative Atomic Mass
What is the RAM of an element?
The RAM of an element is the average Mass Number of an element based on how abundant each isotope of the atom is.
Copper has two isotopes, Copper-63 and Copper-65. The RAM of Copper is 63.5. Which isotope is more abundant and why?
Copper-63 is more abundant because the RAM is closer to 63 that 65
What are ions?
Ions are when there is an imbalance of protons and electrons
When are ions formed?
Ions are formed when an atom gains or loses an electron
What is the relationship between metals and non-metals and ions?
Metal atoms lose electron(s) to from positive ions
Non-metal atoms gain electron(s) to for negative ions
What do all atoms "want" to be like, and why?
Noble Gases. This is because the noble gases are the only elements on the periodic table which have a stable electron arrangement