Flashcards in atmosphere test Deck (31)
What are the steps for cloud formation?
A mass of air rises as the surrounding atmospheric pressure decreases the air molecules move farther part, therefore the temperature of the air mass cools and drops to below the dew point, net condensation causes clouds to form, the altitude where condensation begins is called the condensation level.
What is the relationship between air temperature and dew point?
As air temperature decreases it becomes closer to the dew point and will eventually reach it as air temperature increases it becomes further away from the dew point
The graph shows the average monthly temperatures for two cities which are both located at 41° north latitude. How can you explain the difference in the average yearly temperature range for the two cities?
Since we know both cities are both located at the same latitude but their temperatures vary greatly we can infer that city B is probably a coastal city or very near water because cities near water will have a cooler summer than cities inland and warmer winters because water has a high heat capacity and in the summer it cools the land but in the winter it warms the land causing the city to have a small temperature range throughout the year than cities not near water.
What is the most abundant gas in Earth’s atmosphere?
Which electromagnetic waves have the longest wavelength?
Give 3 examples of heat transfer by conduction.
When the metal handle of a pot of boiling water is warmed because it is touching the hot part of the pan, during collisions between the molecules on earth’s surface and the molecules in Earth’s atmosphere, and when heating a tin can the tin can gives heat to the water by conduction.
What was the relative humidity of the air when the dry bulb is 27 degrees and the wet bulb is 24 degrees?
What is the name of the weather instrument used to measure air pressure? …..to measure humidity? ….to measure wind direction? …..to measure wind speed?
Barometers are used to measure air pressure, electrical hygrometers and psychrometers are used to measure humidity, wind vanes are used to measure wind direction, and anemometers are used to measure wind speed
A temperature of 80° Fahrenheit would be approximately equal to how many degrees on the Celsius scale?
27 degrees Celsius
You are in a hot air balloon that is traveling to the top of the troposphere. How much of a temperature change will be experienced during your flight?
A 70-degree temperature drop
What is the most likely path of these two pressure centers over the next few days?
Over the next few days the High pressure zone will most likely move East and possibly North and the Low pressure zone will do the same.
Which atmospheric temperature zone is located between 8 and 32 miles above Earth’s surface and contains an abundance of ozone?
What is the difference in the air temperature and humidity between a cT and mP air masses?
A maritime polar air mass is cool and moist while a Continental tropical air mass is warm and dry
What type of frontal boundary is the line on the map?
A cold front
Draw a graph to show how the air temperature and probability of precipitation change during this air movement from A to B to C.
As the air goes from a to b the temperature of the air decreases causing clouds to form and the likelihood of precipitation to increase as the air moves from b to c the probability of precipitation decreases and the air temperature rises.
What type of land surfaces have the greatest degree of heating from insolation? What type of surface has the greatest albedo?
Dark surfaces that are rough such as blacktop and soil have the greatest insulation, ice snow and water and light colored smooth surfaces have the greatest albedo.
Identify by name the surface ocean current that cools the climate of locations on the western coastline of South America.
The Peru C. current
An Earth science student observed the following weather conditions in Albany, New York, for 2 days: The first day was cool with low humidity and a northerly wind. The second day, the temperature was 15 degrees warmer, the relative humidity had increased, and wind direction was southeast. Which type of air mass most likely had moved into the area on the second day?
A maritime tropical air mass most likely moved over the area causing the increase in humidity and temperature.
What causes wind
Uneven heating and cooling of earth's crust causes wind
What is the relationship between air temperature and air pressure?
As air pressure increases so does air temperature because there are more collisions between the air molecules.
What is the wind circulation associated with a low pressure? ….with a high pressure?
In areas of high pressure wind circulates clockwise and in areas of low pressure wind circulates counterclockwise.
When and why do hurricanes weaken?
Hurricanes weaken as they move over land or cool water because heat and moisture from the ocean provide the energy that maintains it.
Name two weather instruments that would have been used to collect weather data about a hurricane.
anemometers and the buoys and the saffir simpson hurricane scale are all used to collect weather data about hurricanes
Why do hurricane winds show a parabolic curve from the west coast of Africa across the Atlantic to the east coast of the U.S.?
Because the winds of Africa blow across the desert and then is met by cool moist air a strong area of high altitude winds form called the African Easterly jet this jet is unstable and forms waves and thunderstorms that move off the African coast.
What weather conditions is the west coast of South America experiencing during an El Nino event?
The west coast of South America is experiencing droughts fires and a drop in sea level with cool waters in the ocean
DESCRIBE the temperature and moisture characteristics during El Nino conditions.
The temperature increases and becomes warm along with the ocean and the moisture in the air increases which increases relative humidity
The map shows the location of four cities, A, B, C, and D, in the western United States where prevailing winds are from the southwest. Which city most likely receives the greatest amount of average yearly precipitation? Which city is most likely to receive the least amount of precipitation? What is the role of the mountains in the distribution of precipitation and climate?
D probably received the greatest amount of precipitation because it is at the top of a mountain where the air cools and the moisture from spot C condenses creating precipitation. A probably receives the least amount of precipitation because at D all the precipitation happens which leaves little to no moisture in the air as it reaches A and since the air mass moves closer to the ground it will not reach the condensation level. Mountains because the have high elevation are cold at the top than the bottom and as air rises up the mountain the air cools and expands condensing and forming clouds which causes an increase in precipitation.
What happens to a weather balloon as it rises through the troposphere and into the upper stratosphere?
The balloon expands because the air pressure in the stratosphere is less and then the air pressure on the inside of the balloon becomes greater than the air pressure outside the balloon and it pops.
When do the sun’s rays strike latitude 0 ° at an angle of 90°?
At the equator but the sun can be at 90 between 23.5 N and 23.5 S at other times in the year because of earth’s tilt