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Flashcards in ATI Chapter 3 Deck (12)
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1

what to consider when determining the health of a community?

  • status: epidemiological data, client satisfaction, mental health, crime rates
  • structure: presence of health care facilities, servce types and patterns of use, demographic data
  • process: relationships, communication, commitment and participation in health

2

important factors to think about when assessing the "people" component of the community

  • demographic: distribution, mobility, density, census data
  • biological factors: health and dz status, genetics, race, age, gender, causes of death
  • social factors: occupation, activities, marital status, education, income, crime rates, recreation, industry

3

important factors to consider when assessing the "place/environment" component of the community

  • physical factors: geography, terrain, type of community, location of health services, housing, animal control
  • environmental factors: geography, climate, flora, fauna, topography, toxic substances, pollutants

4

how to assess data about a community

  • informant interviews
  • community forum
  • secondary data
  • participant observation
  • focus groups
  • surveys
  • windshield survey

5

informant interviews

  • direct discussion w/ community members for purpose of obtaining ideas/opinions from key informants
  • strengths:
    • minimal cost
    • participants serving as future supporters
    • offers insight into beliefs and attitudes of community members
    • reading/writing of participants not required
  • limitations:
    • built in bias
    • meeting time/place

6

community forum

  • open public meeting
  • strengths:
    • opportunity for community input
    • minimal cost
  • limits:
    • difficulty finding convenient time/place
    • potential to drift from issue
    • challenging to get adequate participation

7

secondary data

  • use of existing data (records) to assess problem
  • must evaluate reliability of the sources
  • strengths:
    • database of prior concerns/needs of population
    • ability to trend issues over time
  • limits:
    • data may not represent current situation
    • time consuming

8

participant observation

  • observation of formal or informal community activities
  • strengths:
    • indication of community priorities or environmental profile
  • limits:
    • bias
    • time consuming
    • inability to ask questions of participants

9

focus groups

 

  • directed talk with representative sample
  • strengths:
    • possibility of participants being supporters
    • provides insight into community support
    • reading/writing of participants not required
  • limits:
    • discussion of irrelevant issues
    • challenging to get participants
    • requires strong facilitator
    • difficult to ensure sample represents whole community
    • time consuming

10

surveys

  • specific questions in written format
  • strengths:
    • data collected on population and problems
    • random sampling
    • available online/written
    • contact w/ participants not required
  • limits:
    • low response rate
    • expensive
    • time consuming
    • requires reading/writing of participants

11

windshield survey

  • descriptive approach that assesses community components by driving thru a community
  • strengths:
    • provides descriptive overview of community
  • limits:
    • need for a driver so nurse can visualize and document community elements
    • can be time consuming
    • results based only on visualization
  • survey components:
    • people
    • place
    • housing
    • social systems

12

community health dx

  • risk of ____: specific problem or risk in community
  • among ____: specific population affected by problem
  • related to ____: strengths and weaknesses in the community that influence the problem or risk