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Flashcards in ATI Chapter 2 Deck (24)
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define "culture"

  • beliefs, values, attitudes, and behaviors shared by a group of people and transmitted from generation to generation


define "acculturation"

  • process of merging with or adopting the traits of a different culture
  • adapting to a new culture requires changes in daily living practices
  • these changes relate to language, education, work, recreation, social experiences, and health care system


define "cultural awareness"

  • includes self awareness of one's own cultural background, biases, and difference
  • if you are culturally aware, you are:
    • more likely to explore cultural variations among clients
    • better able to understand how personal beliefs impact client care
    • able to recognize the meaning of health is different in each culture


define "cultural competence"

  • involves respecting personal dignity and preferences, as well as acknowledging cultural differences
    • the provision of culturally competent care requires nurses to be responsive to the needs of clients from different cultures


environmental control

  • indicates belief in how the environment affects the individual
  • if the person believes the env can be mastered to affect health status, then they will actively engage in health promotion, dz prevention, and tx
  • if the person feels their outcome is predetermined and they cannot change it, then they are less likely to engage in health related behaviors
  • if the person believes they are in harmony w/ the env, then they are more likely to use CAM and spirituality to promote balance in health status


time orientation

  • describes whether a person places more value on the past, present, or future
  • indivs who focus on past/present can have little interest in health promotion behaviors


social organization

  • decribes the significance of individual members of a family or the family as a whole
  • a single family member who is not the client may be the decision maker in the family, so an indiv may forgo her own health care needs for the safe of the fmaily


biomedical beliefs

  • beliefs about illness that focus on identifying a cause for every effect on the body
    • believe the body will function like a machine
  • basis for the health system in the US and is science based


naturalistic beliefs

  • beliefs about illness relate the individual as a part of nature or creation
  • an imbalance in nature is believed to causedz
  • this is basis of Chinese or Eastern medicine


magico-religious beliefs

  • beliefs about illness that link health to supernatural forces, like good or evil
  • includes belief in faith healing used by some Christian religions, or voodoo and witchcraft practices used in Caribbean nations


biological variants of health

  • can be linked to genetic ties from biological relatives


using an interpreter

  • interpreter should have knowledge of health related terminology
  • should not use family b/c client may need privacy
    • family members can also lack objectivity when relaying information to or from client
    • family member can have difficulty understanding medical terms
  • nurse should consider client preferences when selecting age and gender of interpreter
  • interpreters should not be from same community as client
  • differences in SES, religion, education, and spoken dialect can result in a barrier


conveying cultural sensitivity

  • address client by last names, unless the client gives the nurse permission to use other names
  • be authentic and honest
  • introduce self by name
  • use culturally sensitive language
  • find out what client's know about their health problems and tx
  • incorporate client's preferences and practices into care when possible
  • do not make assumptions about clients
  • encourage clients to ask questions
  • respect clients' values, beliefs, and practices


environmental health

  • relates to quality of air, land, water to which people come into contact w/


individual and community goals for primary prevention in regards to the environment

  • individual: educate individuals to reduce environmental hazards
  • community:
    • educate groups to reduce hazards
    • advocate for safe water and air
    • support programs for waste reduction and recycling
    • advocate for waste reduction and effective waste mgmt


individual and community goals for secondary prevention in regards to the environment

  • indiv:
    • survey for health conditions related to exposures
    • obtain env health hx
    • monitor workers for levels of chemical exposures on job sites
    • screen children 6 mos-5 yo for blood lead levels
  • community:
    • survey for health conditions related ot env or occupational exposures
    • assess neighborhoods, schools, and work sites for env hazards


individual and community goals for tertiary prevention in regards to the environment

  • indiv:
    • refer homeowners to lead abatement resources
    • educate clients who have asthma about env triggers
  • community:
    • become active in organizations and legislation related to environmental health issues
    • support cleanup of toxic waste sites


affordable care act

  • created to help make health ins affordable for all ppl and dec the amount of federal spending on health care
  • affects the way medicare benefits are implemented and the way private insurance companies supply coverage
  • extends eligibility for dependents to remain on parents' insurance until 26 yo
  • prohibits health plans from denying benefits for preexisting coverage to children under 19
  • banning lifetime limits on benefit coverage
  • covering preventive care services


World Health Organization (WHO)

  • provides daily info regarding the occurrence of internationally important dz
  • establishes world standards for abx and vaccines
  • primarily focuses on the health care workforce and education, environment, sanitation, infectious dz, maternal/child health, and primary care


state departments of health

  • obtains funding from state legislature and federal public health agencies
  • manages WIC: promotes nutrition for women, infants, children up to 5 who are of low SES
  • oversees Children's Health Insurance Program which offers expanded health coverage to uninsured children whose families do not qualify for Medicaid
  • establishes public health policies
  • responsible for administration of Medicaid


Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs)

  • comprehensive care is provided ot members by a set of designated providers


Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs)

  • predetermined rates are set for services delivered to members
  • financial incentives are in place to promote use of PPO providers


medical savings accounts

  • untaxed money is put in account for use for medical expenses


Medicare vs. Medicaid

  • Medicare: for those over 65 and receiving social Security, have been receiving disability for 2 yrs, have ALS and receive disability benefits, or have kidney failure and be on dialysis or had a transplant
  • Medicaid: provides health care coverage for indivs of low SES and children 
    • eligibility based on household size and income with priority given to children, pregnant women, and those who have a disability