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Flashcards in ATI CH 11 Mental Health Deck (39)
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What are medications for children and adolescents with mental health issues?

Tricyclic antidepressants
Nonbarbiturate anxiolytics
CNS stimulants
Norepinephrine selective reuptake inhibitors


Name some CNS stimulant drugs.

methylphenidate. ( Ritalin,Methylin)
Dexmethylphenidate (Focalin)
Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine)
Amphetamine mixture ( adderall)


For CNS stimulants such as methylphenidate, dexmethylphenidate, dextroamphetamine, amphetamine mixtures and Lisdexamfetamine, what is the expected pharmacological action?

These meds raise the levels of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine into the CNS.

The therapeutic uses of these meds are ADHD, conduct disorder


What are adverse effects of CNS stimulants?

CNS stimulation( insomnia, restlessness)
Wt. loss
Cardiovascular effects ( HTN, angina, dysrhythmias) may increase the risk of sudden death in clients who have heart abnormalities.
Development of psychotic manifestations such as hallucinations, paranoia.
Withdrawal reaction
Hypersensitivity skin reaction to transdermal methylphenidate ( rash, hives)


CNS stimulant drugs are contraindicated in clients who.....

Who have a history of substance use disorder, cardiovascular disorders, severe anxiety and psychosis.


What are medication food interactions of CNS stimulant drugs?

Concurrent use w/ MAOI's may cause hypertensive crisis
Concurrent use of caffeine may increase CNS stimulants
Methylphenidate inhibits metabolism of phenytoin, warfarin, and Phenobarbitol, leading to increased serum levels.
OTC cold and decongestant meds with sympathomimetic action can increase CNS stimulants.


What should a nurse educate a client to do with sustained release tablets?

Advise clients to swallow the tablets WHOLE and to not chew or crush the tablets.


What should the nurse educate a client to do with a transdermal medication( Daytrana)?

Advise the client to place the patch on one hip daily in the morning and leave in place no longer than 9 hr.
Alternate hips daily.


What should nurses educate parents about regarding ADHD?

Instruct parents that ADHD is not cured by medication.
Management with an overall treatment plan that includes family therapy and cognitive therapy will improve outcomes.
Advise parents that these meds have a high potential for development of a substance use disorder, especially in adolescents.


What is the prototype drug of norepinephrine selective reuptake inhibitors?

atomoxetine (Straterra)

Pharmacological action: block reuptake of norepinephrine at synapses in the CNS. atomoxetine in NOT a stimulant medication.

Therapeutic uses: ADHD

Atomoxetine is usually tolerated well with minimal adverse effects.


What are adverse effects of atomoxetine?

Appetite suppression, wt. loss, growth supression
GI effects (nausea and vomiting)
Suicidal ideation ( in children and adolescents)


What are contraindications & precautions regarding atomoxetine?

Use cautiously in clients who have cardiovascular disorders.


What are medication food interactions of atomoxetine?

Concurrent use of MAOI's may cause hypertensive crisis.
paroxetine (Paxil), fluoxetine (Prozac), or quinidine fluconazole ( Quinidine dura tabs) inhibit hepatic metabolizing enzymes, thereby increasing levels of atomoxetine.


How should a nurse administer the doses of atomoxetine?

Administer the medications in a daily dose in the morning, or in 2 divided doses, morning and afternoon with or without food.
Instruct clients that therapeutic effects may take 1-3 weeks to fully develop


What is the prototype drug of Tricyclic antidepressant?

desipramine (Norpramine)

Other medications:
imipramine ( Tofranil)
clomipramine ( Anafranil)


What are expected pharmacological actions of TCA's?

These medications block reuptake of the monoamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine, and serotonin in the synaptic space, thereby intensifying the effects these neurotransmissions produce.


What are the therapeutic uses for TCA's in children?

Autism spectrum disorder
Panic, school phobia, separation anxiety disorder


What are complications/ adverse effects of TCA's?

Orthostatic hypotension
Anticholinergic effects
Weight gain
Toxicity resulting in cholinergic blockade and cardiac toxicity AEB dysrhythmias, mental confusion, and agitation, followed by seizures and coma.
Decreased seizure threshold
Excessive sweating ( diaphoresis)


What are the symptoms of anticholinergic effects and how can a pt. Treat the symptoms.?

Dry mouth..can b relieved by chewing sugarless gum
Blurred vision...can b relieved by avoiding hazardous activities
Photophobia...can b relieved by wearing sunglasses outdoors.
Urinary hesitancy/ retention...can b relieved by void just before taking meds and drinking more fluids.
Constipation can be relieved by eating foods high in fibers
Tachycardia....participate in regular exercise


What are contraindications and precautions to consider while taking TCA's?

Use cautiously in clients who have seizure disorders, diabetes, liver and respiratory disorders, and hyperthyroidism.


What are medication/ food interactions of TCA's?

Concurrent use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors causes hypertension
Antihistamines and other cholinergic agents have additive anticholinergic effects.
TCA's block uptake of epinephrine and norepinephrine ( direct acting sympathomimetics)in the synaptic space, leading to decreased intensity to their effects.
TCA's inhibit uptake of ephedrine and amphetamine ( indirect acting sympathomimetics) and reduce their ability to get to the site of action in the nerve terminal, leading to decreased responses to these medications.
Alcohols, benzodiazepines, opioids and antihistamines cause additive CNS depression when used concurrently.


What is the prototype drug of alpha2-adrenergic agonists?

guanfacine ( Imtuniv)

Other medications: clonidine ( Kapvay)

****Used for ADHD


What is the expected pharmacological action of alpha 2 adrenergic agonists?

The action of alpha2 adrenergic agonists is not completely understood however they are known to activate presynaptic alpha2 adrenergic receptors within the brain.

Used for ADHD


What are adverse effects of alpha2 adrenergic agonists?

CNS effects( sedation, drowsiness, fatigue)
Cardiovascular effects ( hypotension, bradycardia)
Weight gain


What are contraindications and precautions of alpha2 adrenergic agonists?

Extended release clonidine is contraindicated for children less than 6yrs old.
Use cautiously in clients who have cardiac disease.


What are medication / food interactions of alpha2 adrenergic agonists?

CNS depressants, including alcohol, can increase CNS effects
Antihypertensives can worsen hypotension
Foods with high fat content will increase guanfacine absorption.


What is the prototype drug of atypical antidepressants?

risperidone (Risperidone)

Other medications:
olanzapine (Zyprexa)


What is the expected pharmacological action of atypical antidepressants?

These antipsychotic agents work mainly by blocking serotonin and to a lesser degree, dopamine receptors for norepinephrine, histamine and acetylcholine.


What are the therapeutic uses of atypical antipsychotic drugs?

Autism spectrum disorder
Conduct disorder
Relief of psychotic manifestations


What are complication/adverse effects of atypical antipsychotics?

New onset of diabetes or loss of glucose control in pt.who have diabetes
Wt. gain
Hypercholesterolemia w/ increased risk for HTN and other cardiovascular diseases.
Orthostatic hypotension
Anticholinergic effects
Agitation, dizziness, sedation, and sleep disruption
May cause mild extrapyramidal adverse effects such as tremor.