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appropriateness of the design solution

should be manageable response to an identified need or problem or opportunity

it should answer the need, fix the problem or capitalise on the opportunity. the outcome of the design process must consider the end user and the environment in which it is said to be used

must effectively perform the task for which it was designed and be acceptable to the target market.



the ability of a product to perform the task for which it was designed.

it is what the product must be able to do in order to be successful.

all products are designed to achieve a primary function; that is, the main purpose for which they are selected by the consumer



refers to the physical appearance of a product and its visual appeal to the target market



the amount of money required to progress the development of a product through all the phases until completion.

May include research and development; procuring raw materials, plant and equipment; and establishing and maintaining manufacturing processes, product distribution and ongoing advertising and marketing costs

developing a new product can be very expensive and tie consuming however it is important to invest in trying to get the design right before progressing to the next stage.

if not it may cost a lot more money to correct any errors in the future.

contemporary technologies like 3D printing enable designers to create and test prototypes to asses their suitability before preparing for mass production



the relationship between the human user and their physical or work environment

an important consideration in products design with the user in mine and aims to ensure that workplaces, products and systems are designed to fit the people who are intended to use them

use data obtained from several disciplines including anthropometry ( body sizes and shapes) biomechanics
( muscles, levers and forces) and environmental physics
( noise, light, heat, cold and radiation) and using modern and emerging technologies such as 3D body scanners

considerations enable the designer to develop empathy for the user by looking at the different ways in which people interact with the product or system - physically, mentally. referred to as product-person interface.

the aim is to develop a comfortable, safe (and thus productive) product or work environment

failure to consider could result in a project that causes discomfort, pain or physical injury to the user


short term and long term environmental consequences

as designers we have the responsibility to consider the environmental impact of our work the impact of designers can be both positive and negative


short term environmental consequences

waste and energy use

can be minimised by making informed choices about the selection of resources and the production of wastage and pollution.

to mitigate negative impacts, designers have a responsibility to actively seek sustainable alternatives to non renewable resources or develop designs that are lean, meaning that they dont produce a lot of waste or may be produced efficiently minimising energy use


throwaway culture of designs of single use

designers need to ensure that their design decisions focus on the preservation of our natural resources.

design considerations such as developing solutions that are more durable, that can be repaired or use less components would reduce the impact


consequences of human disregard (long-term)

increase in greenhouse gases leading to global warming is reportedly contributing to an increase in catastrophic weather events.

issues such as food and water insecurity, waste such as microplastics and loss of diversity from activities such as deforstation, examples of environmental consequences that are related to long term human activities and unsustainable resource consumption


how do we ensure future generations have acess to natural reosurces

it is not just the consumers who need to be proactive in changing their behaviour by choosing products that have less an impact on the environment.

it is also up to the policy makers, manufacturing companies and their designers who need to implement environmentally considerate policy and design and produce products that satisfy environmental criteria


life cycle analysis

evaluation of all the resources used when designing, making, using and disposing of a product

it examines all inputs(materials/resources and energy) an all outputs (wastage and pollution) from initial concept through design, manufacture, distribution, usage and disposal

it considers where the original materials came from, what energy was required for production, what by products were produced and how the product was transported how it was consumer or used and how it was disposed.

rather then just analysing and designing products that have less negative impact from its initial design yo its disposal. what if the designer plans for the use of the material of a product after it has served intended purpose?

Implies that designers are using sustainable design practice and ensuring that once a product is no longer functional it can be recycled or reused in some way



measure of excellence.

difficult to define exactly what we mean by quality or what properties a quality product must possess.

quality is closely linked to value and durability.

quality may be the result of the selected manufacturing processes and workmanship, such as short production runs, high-quality control mechanisms and bespoke (custom) production, which again make a product more expensive to the consumer.