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Flashcards in Approaches Deck (95)
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1

John Locke (1632-1704)

Locke proposed empiricism which later formed the basis of the behaviourist approach

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Empiricism

The idea that all experience can be obtained through the senses, and that human beings inherit neither knowledge or instincts

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Introspection

The process by which a person gains knowledge about his or her own mental and emotional states

Allows us to observe our inner world

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What did Wundt believe introspection could do

Allow us to observe mental processes such as memory, feelings and perception

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Problem using introspection to investigate ‘non-observable’ responses

It is subjective
People may lie, reducing validity and reliability
Many mental processes do not happen consciously

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What was the new scientific approach to psychology based on

All behaviour is seen as being caused
If behaviour is determined by a cause then it should be possible to predict how humans would behave in different conditions

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Behaviourist approach

Studying behaviour that can be observed and measured
Uses lab experiments to create a controlled and objective environment
Suggested that the basic processes that govern learning are the same in all species

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Types of conditioning

Classical conditioning
Operant conditioning

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Classical conditioning

Known as stimulus response learning
Works by building up an association between two stimuli

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Strengths of classical conditioning

Therapies - aversion therapy or systematic desensitisation

Advertising - link emotion with a product even when seen separately

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UCS in Pavlov’s study

Unconditioned stimulus - food

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UCR in Pavlov’s study

Unconditioned response - salivation

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NS in Pavlov’s study

Neutral stimulus - Bell

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CS in Pavlov’s study

Conditioned stimulus - Bell

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CR in Pavlov’s study

Conditioned response - Salivation

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Before conditioning

UCS —> UCR

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During conditioning

UCS + NS —> UCR

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After conditioning

CS —> CR

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Operant conditioning

Skinner believed that ‘behaviour is shaped and maintained by consequences’, which were reinforcement or punishment

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Skinners experiment

Skinner taught rats to learn a specific response. He developed ways of reinforcing rats using food pellets, since rats were hungry he rewarded them. E.g. food was only released when the red light was on and not the green light. Rats quickly learnt to press the lever when the red light was on

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Consequences according to Skinner

Positive reinforcement
Negative reinforcement
Punishment

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Positive reinforcement

Receiving a reward when a certain behaviour is performed

E.g. praise from a teacher when answering a question

Increases likelihood of behaviour

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Negative reinforcement

When a person avoids something unpleasant. The avoidance of that thing is the negative reinforcement

E.g. a student hands in an essay so as not to be told off

Increases likelihood of behaviour

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Punishment

An unpleasant consequence of behaviour

E.g. being shouted at by a teacher during a lesson

Decreases likelihood of behaviour

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Neutral stimulus

Any environmentally stimulus that does not produce a behavioural response

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Unconditioned stimulus

Any stimulus that produces a natural, unlearnt behavioural response

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Unconditioned response

Any response which occurs naturally without learning

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Conditioned stimulus

A stimulus that has been associated with an UCS. It now produces the same response as the UCS on its own

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Conditioned response

A learnt behaviour that is shown in response to a learnt stimulus

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Social learning theory

Different way in which people learn through observation and imitation of others within a social context
Bridge between behaviourism and cognitive approach