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1

What is the hypothesis of mood? 

Major depressive disorders result from a functional deficiency of NE, 5-HT, and dopamine at synapses in the CNS

2

What 3 neurotransmitter defiiencies is thought to cause major depressive disorders? 

NE

5-HT

Dopamine

3

T/F: All classes of antidepressants appear to enhance the synaptic availability of 5-HT, norepinephrine, or dopamine

TRUE

4

T/F: Attempts to develop antidepressants that work on other neurotransmitter systems have been effective to date. 

FALSE

Attempts to develop antidepressants that work on other neurotransmitter systems have NOT been effective to date. 

5

Changes in what 2 components appear to play a major role in the development of major depression? 

BDNF

hormones

6

What is considered successful tx of depression

a change in BDNF and hormones

7

NTs carry ______ between cells. 

messages

8

These bind to a specific receptor, and this coupling initiates a cascade of events. 

NTs

9

These are reabsorbed back ininto nerve cells by reuptake pumps (transporter molecules) at which point they may be recycled for later use or broken down by enzymes

NTs

10

MOA for which drugs? 

inhibit the transporter molecules and allow more NT to remain in the synapse

antidepressants

11

Which dz? 

associated with changes in serotonin or norepinephrine signaling in the brain (or both) with significant downstream effects (lesser-dopamine)

Depression

12

Most antidepressants cause changes in _____ signaling. 

Most antidepressants cause changes in amine signaling. 

13

What neuroendocrine factors are associated with more severe forms of depression

Abnormal HPA axis

Elevated cortisol levels

Thyroid dysregulation

Estrogen/testosterone deficiency

Trytophan deficient diet

14

How do elevated cortisol levels contribute to major depression? 

lead to dysregulation of the stress hormone axis

15

Why would a tryptophan deficient diet cause major depression? 

tryptophan is a precursor of serotonin synthesis

16

What are the 3 phases of tx in MDD? 

acute phase

continuation phase

maintenance phase

17

lasts 6 to 12 wks in which the goal is remission (absence of symptoms)

Which phase of MDD tx? 

acute

18

lasts 4 to 9 mos after remission is achieved, in which the goal is to eliminate residual symptoms or prevent relapse (ie, return of symptoms within 6 months of remission)

Which phase of MDD is this? 

Continuation Phase

19

lasts at least 12 to 36 mos in which the goal is to prevent recurrence (a separate episode of depression)

Which phase of MDD is this? 

Maintenance Phase

20

Which acne tx is associated with drug-induced depressive sx? 

isotretinoin

21

Which anticonvulsants are associated with drug-incuced depressive sx? 

Levetiracetam

Topiramate

Vigabatrin

"Leave it To Viagara"

22

Which antimigraine tx is associated with drug-induced depressive sx? 

triptans

23

Which CV tx are associated with drug-induced depressive sx? 

Beta blocker

Clonidine

Methyldopa

reserpine

"The beta fish cloni takes meth with the serpent"

24

Which hormonal therapies are associated with drug-induced depressive sx? 

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

Oral contraceptives

Steroids (prednisone)

Tamoxifen

25

Which immunologic agents are associated with drug-induced depressive sx? 

Interferons

26

Which smoking cessation drug is associated with drug-induced depressive sx? 

Varenicline

27

What are the 6 antidepressant pharmacotherapy options? 

Tricyclic antidepressants

MAO inhibitors

SSRIs

SNRIs (5-HT-NE)

5-HT₂

Heterocyclic antidepressants

28

The hypothesis that major depressive disorders result from a functional deficiency of norepinephrine or serotonin at synapses in the CNS

Which hypothesis? 

Amine hypothesis of mood

29

Structurally related drugs that block reuptake transporters of both norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT)

Which drug? 

tricyclic

30

Drugs that selectively inhibit serotonin (5-HT) transporters with only modest effects on other neurotransmitters

Which drug? 

SSRIs