What is the hypothesis of mood?
Major depressive disorders result from a functional deficiency of NE, 5-HT, and dopamine at synapses in the CNS
What 3 neurotransmitter defiiencies is thought to cause major depressive disorders?
T/F: All classes of antidepressants appear to enhance the synaptic availability of 5-HT, norepinephrine, or dopamine
T/F: Attempts to develop antidepressants that work on other neurotransmitter systems have been effective to date.
Attempts to develop antidepressants that work on other neurotransmitter systems have NOT been effective to date.
Changes in what 2 components appear to play a major role in the development of major depression?
What is considered successful tx of depression?
a change in BDNF and hormones
NTs carry ______ between cells.
These bind to a specific receptor, and this coupling initiates a cascade of events.
These are reabsorbed back ininto nerve cells by reuptake pumps (transporter molecules) at which point they may be recycled for later use or broken down by enzymes
MOA for which drugs?
inhibit the transporter molecules and allow more NT to remain in the synapse
associated with changes in serotonin or norepinephrine signaling in the brain (or both) with significant downstream effects (lesser-dopamine)
Most antidepressants cause changes in _____ signaling.
Most antidepressants cause changes in amine signaling.
What neuroendocrine factors are associated with more severe forms of depression?
Abnormal HPA axis
Elevated cortisol levels
Trytophan deficient diet
How do elevated cortisol levels contribute to major depression?
lead to dysregulation of the stress hormone axis
Why would a tryptophan deficient diet cause major depression?
tryptophan is a precursor of serotonin synthesis
What are the 3 phases of tx in MDD?
lasts 6 to 12 wks in which the goal is remission (absence of symptoms)
Which phase of MDD tx?
lasts 4 to 9 mos after remission is achieved, in which the goal is to eliminate residual symptoms or prevent relapse (ie, return of symptoms within 6 months of remission)
Which phase of MDD is this?
lasts at least 12 to 36 mos in which the goal is to prevent recurrence (a separate episode of depression)
Which phase of MDD is this?
Which acne tx is associated with drug-induced depressive sx?
Which anticonvulsants are associated with drug-incuced depressive sx?
"Leave it To Viagara"
Which antimigraine tx is associated with drug-induced depressive sx?
Which CV tx are associated with drug-induced depressive sx?
"The beta fish cloni takes meth with the serpent"
Which hormonal therapies are associated with drug-induced depressive sx?
Which immunologic agents are associated with drug-induced depressive sx?
Which smoking cessation drug is associated with drug-induced depressive sx?
What are the 6 antidepressant pharmacotherapy options?
The hypothesis that major depressive disorders result from a functional deficiency of norepinephrine or serotonin at synapses in the CNS
Amine hypothesis of mood
Structurally related drugs that block reuptake transporters of both norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT)
Drugs that selectively inhibit serotonin (5-HT) transporters with only modest effects on other neurotransmitters