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Flashcards in Antibiotics I Deck (64)
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1

recombination

incorporate DNA into genome

2

transformation

uptake of naked DNA

3

transduction

bacteriophage transfer

4

Penicillins

Penicillin G/VK
Nafcillin/Dicolxacillin
Amoxicillin/Ampicillin
Amox/clav + Amp/sulbactam
Piperacillin
Pip/Tazobactam

5

Cephalosporins

Cefazolin/Cephalexin
Ceftriaxone
Ceftazdime

6

Carbapenems

Imipenem/Cilastin
Meropenem

7

Monobactams

Aztreonam

8

Glycopeptide

Vancomycin

9

Oxazolidinone

Linezolid

10

Cyclic Lipopeptide

Daptomycin

11

Macrolide

Erythromycin
Clarithromycin
Azithromycin

12

Nitroimidazole

Metronidazole

13

Bacteriostatic target

protein synth/DNA synth

14

Bacteriostatic Rxs

ECSTaTiC
Erythromycin (macrolides) Clindamycin
Sulfamethoxazole
Trimethoprim
Tetracyclines
Chloramphenicol

15

Bacteriocidal rxs

Really Very Fine At Bug Murder
Rifampin
Vancomycin
Fluoroquinolones Aminoglycosides
B-lactams
Metronidazole

16

Cell wall synthesis inhibitor advantages

*selectivity - only bacteria have cell wall
peptidogycan
*only active during synthesis (growing bacteria)

17

what does vancomycin block?

cell wall - external phase - strand synthesis
Gucosyltransferase (peptidoglycan synthase)

18

what does penicillin (B lactam) block?

*cell wall - strand cross-linking
*Peptidoglycan transpeptidase PBP
*covalent enzyme binding - defective cell wall

19

B lactams select

Gram +s, looks like D-ala D-ala to bind peptidoglycan transpeptidase

20

B lactam resistance
Gram -

*physical barrier
*mutant porin in outer cell membrane
*efflux pump over all 3 layers
*enzyme inactivation (Gram + AND Gram -) B lactamase
*mutate transpeptidase (PBP-2a not binding B-lact) (Gram + ONLY) (MRSA)

21

Penicillinase resistant bacteria Penicillins

Nafcillin (IV) + Dicloxacillin (PO)

22

Extended spectrum (Gram +/-) Penicillins

Amoxi (PO), Ampicillin (IV,PO)

23

Extended spectrum anti-pseudomonal Penicillins

piperacillin

24

Compounded w/ B-lactamase inhibitor penicillins

Amox/clav (PO)
Amp/Sulbactam (IV)
Pip/Tazobactam

25

Penicillin G (IV) + VK (PO)

*susceptible Gram +ves
*Inactivated by gastric acid
*Poor CNS penetration (meningitis)
*Renal secretion - PCT

26

Penicillin G

*bacteria selective - low direct toxicity

27

Penicillin G S.E.

*Superinfection - colitis (acidophilus pills)
*CNS tremors
*Hypersensitivity (rash, anaphylactic, skin TEN)

28

Nafcillin (IV) excretion

biliary (unusual, most pen are kidney)

29

Which acid-stable Pen-resistant pens are orally active?

DICLOXACILLIN
oxacillin
cloxacillin

30

Amoxicillin (extended-spectrum)

acid stable - well absorbed
Better GI absorb