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Flashcards in Antibiotics Deck (44)
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1

Penicillin mechanism of action

Penicillins contain a Beta-lactam ring, which binds to transpeptidase (PBP) and prevents cell wall synthesis.

2

What are penicillins used to treat?

Most strep (not strep pneumo)
Neisseria meningitidis
Treponema palladium

3

What are penicillins inactive against?

Strep pneumo
MRSA
MRSE
Gram negative rods

4

Methicillin resistance is due to ______.

Altered PBP

5

What are the clinical uses of anti-Staph penicillins?

MSSA
MSSE

6

What are the anti-Staph penicillins?

Nafcillin
Dicloxacillin

7

What are the clinical uses of aminopenicillins?

E. coli
Shigella
Salmonella enterica
Borrelia burgdorferi
Plus same activity as natural penicillins

8

What are the aminopenicillins?

Ampicillin
Amoxicillin

9

What are the ESPs?

Piperacillin
Ticarcillin
Carbenicillin

10

How do you treat Pseudomonas?

Usually with a 2 drug regimen.

1. Beta-lactam (Penicillin or Cephalosporin) + aminoglycoside (Gentamicin)
2. Beta-lactam + Beta-lactamase inhibitor (Ticarcillin/Clavulanate)
3. Carbapenems
4. Ceftazidime
5. Cipro / Levofloxacin
6. Cefepime
7. Aztreonam

11

Clinical uses of Vancomycin

1. MRSA
2. Penicillin-resistant Strep pneumo
3. Serious C. diff infections

12

What drug is used for TB, plague, tularemia, brucellosis, Mycobacterium avium complex?

Streptomycin

13

How would you treat E. coli, Klebsiella, and Proteus?

Ampicillin
Cefazolin
TMP/SMX
Fluoroquinolones

14

Most Neisseria meningitidis strains are susceptible to _____. If resistant, use ______.

Penicillin
Ceftriaxone or Cefotaxime (3rd generation Cephalosporins)

15

What is the treatment for Neisseria gonorrhoeae?

Ceftriaxone + azithromycin/doxycycline (for likely concurrent chlamydia infection)

16

Which antibiotics are usually effective against anaerobes?

Clindamycin
Metronidazole

17

Which antibiotics may result in C. diff infections?

Clindamycin
2nd/3rd generation Cephalosporins
Aminopenicillins

18

What drug is used as prophylaxis for Neisseria-related meningitis?

Rifampin

19

Klebsiella treatment

3rd generation Cephalosporin

20

E. coli treatment

TMP-SMX
Penicillin (UTI)
3rd generation Cephalosporin (meningitis, sepsis)

21

How do you treat Salmonella typhi?

Ceftriaxone
Cipro, Ampicillin for carriers

22

Shigella treatment

Oral rehydration for moderate cases
Fluoroquinolones for severe cases

23

Proteus mirabilis treatment

TMP-SMX
Ampicillin

24

Vibrio cholerae treatment

Oral/IV rehydration
Tetracycline

25

Yersinia pestis treatment

Streptomycin
Tetracycline

26

Helicobacter pylori treatment

Triple:

PPI + Amoxicillin + Clarithromycin

27

Campylobacter jejuni treatment

Erythromycin
Ciprofloxacin

28

H. influenzae treatment

3rd generation Cephalosporin

29

Legionella treatment

Erythromycin

30

Bordetella treatment

Erythromycin