What are the 2 broad categories of ano-rectal abnormalities?
What is the common presentation of ano-rectal abnormalities?
What is a haemorrhage?
Escape of blood from a ruptured blood vessel
What are the different classifications of ano-rectal abnormalities?
What are examples of ano-rectal congenital abnormalities?
Hirschprung's Myenteric Plexus Deficiency
What are examples of acquired ano-rectal abnormalities?
Control of continence
What should be considered when investigating haemorrhoids?
What is the treatment for haemorrhoids?
What is stapled anopexy?
Procedure for Prolapse and Haemorrhoids (PPH), circular stapling instrument is inserted through the anus into the rectum which pulls the swollen and prolapsed blood vessels of the haemorrhoids back into their normal position
What is an anal fissure?
Break or treat in the skin of the anal canal
When investigating an anal fissure what should be considered?
How can the internal anal sphincter be relaxed?
What medicine can be given to relax the internal anal sphincter?
Topical nitric oxide
0.2% glyceryl trinitrate paste
2% diltiazem calcium blocker
What surgical procedure can be done to relax the internal anal sphincter?
Internal lateral sphincterotomy
What is a peri-anal abscess?
Collection of pus develops near the anus
What are most peri-anal abscess' the result of?
Infection from small anal glands
What should be considered when investigating peri-anal abscess'?
What is the treatment for peri-anal abscess?
Incision and drainage
Try to avoid complications
What is fistula-in-ano?
Abnormal communications between the epithelialised surface of the anal canal and usually the perianal skin
What should be considered when investigating fistula-in-ano?
What is the treatment for fistula-in-ano?
Lay open by fistulotomy (if superficial)
Trans-sphincteric, aim to close primary opening
What is anorectal cancer?
Malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the anus
What should be considered when investigating anorectal cancer?
What are different colorectal cancer sites?
Left colon (36%)
Right colon (27%)
Transverse colon (10%)
What is the most common site of colorectal cancer?
What are different kinds of imaging used to investigate colorectal cancer?
MRI guided colonoscopy
What is a colonoscopy?
Videoscope (flexible thin tube with camera at the end) view with or without x-ray screening
What does anorectal cancer treatment depend on?
The histology (anal squamous cancer or rectal adenocarinoma)
What are the 2 main histological types of anorectal cancer?
Anal squamous cancer
What is the treatment for anal squamous cancer?