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Flashcards in Ankle Foot Orthotics Deck (27)
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what are precautioons/contraindications of AFOs

precaution: sensation impairment or edema

contraindication: open wound or fixed deformity of the ankle


what are trim lines

they are the borders of an orthosis that determine the amount of containment and control of the tibia


what is the height and reasoning of the trim lines

it is one inch inferior to the fibular head; a longer lever arm is needed for more control


how is the design of a full foot plate significiant

controls the knee
also used for pt. with hypertonicity


what is an articulated or hinged joint

a free joint that allows for full ankle DF/PF but limits medial/lateral motion


where are postings placed on an orthotic

added to the external plantar surface of the hindfoot to provide extra support for any abnormal alignment or accommodated fixed deformities


what are AFOs most commonly used for

drop foot


what is a patellar tendon bearing shell indicated for

heel ulcers
severe foot trauma
chronic ankle pain
****this custom AFO is used to take WB off the bottom foot


what are pre-fab AFOs best for

best for short term used or trials
best for patients with good sensation and no edema


what is the top choice pre-fab AFO

carbon fiber because it has energy storing benefits and is light weight


what patient would be using a carbon fiber AFO

pt. with MS or post-polio would benefit from the light weight mold due to their impairments involving fatigue and decreased strength


when would we choose to use a conventional AFO

when it is hard to fit a custom orthotic because of poor skin integrity
for someone with edema, severe bony deformity or poor sensation


what is the name of a foot orthosis with trim lines above the malleoli and surrounding the foot

a supramalleolar orthotic


when is a SMO indicated

for someone who needs medial/lateral control but has DF/PF control


characteristics of the posterior leaf spring

trim lines are posterior to the malleoli
provides DF assist
gives support during swing but no control during stance


how can a solid AFO counteract genu recurvatum

it is set at 2-3 degrees of DF which minimizes the excessive extension moment while preserving the knee joint


how is knee extension moment promoted

by ankle plantar flexion


how is knee flexion moment promoted

by ankle dorsiflexion


what type of ankle joint provides only mediolateral stability

the free joint


when is a PF joint stop used

used in someone with dorsiflexion weakness


when is a dorsiflexion joint stop used

used in quad weakness; because if you are unable to get full extension in the knee your leg will keep buckling therefore creating too much dorsiflexion


when is a dorsiflexion assist spring joint contraindicated

with someone who has hypertonicity


what is the purpose of a ground or floor reaction AFO

limits forward progression of the tibia during stance phase which produces a knee ext moment because it sets the leg in slight plantarflexion


when is a ground reaction AFO indicated

used for someone with excessive knee flexion and dorisflexion


what does the spiral AFO control

controls eversion/inversion
has little control over DF/PF


How is the toe off AFO considered a dynamic response orthoses

it stores and returns energy which can reduce the energy cost of walking
the anterior design provides DF resistance which assists PF and propulsion at toe off


which AFO is indicated for Charcot Marie Tooth deformity and why

the unloading neuropathic AFO because it transfers weight from the foot into the orthotic and is designed to off load wound sites