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Flashcards in Animal Medicine 2 Deck (423)
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1

Modified neurons in the hypothalamus produce two hormones:

oxytocin, ADH

2

Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis) "master gland" has two separate structures which are?

Anterior (adenohypophysis):
-Derived from glandular tissue
-7 hormones produced when stimulated by the hypothalamus & direct feedback from target organs & tissues

Posterior (neurohypophysis):
-Derived from the nervous system
-Does not produce hormones
-Stores and releases two hormones (produced by the hypothalamus)

3

Adrenal cortex produces too much glucocorticoid hormone(cortisol), Excessive administration of glucocorticoid drugs

Hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing’s Syndrome)

4

Deficiency of adrenocortical hormones
Sudden withdrawal of corticosteroid drugs that have been given long-term

Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison’s Dz)

5

Inner portion derived from nervous tissue, Two very similar hormones are produced Epinephrine, Norepinephrine

adrenal medulla

6

The two methods that control hormone secretion are?

1) Negative Feedback Systems (ex thyroid gland)
2) Direct stimulation from the nervous system (ex adrenal medulla)

7

Most commonly diseased organs in ___

SA (thyroid, adrenal, pancreas, parathyroid and gonads)

8

The thyroid gland produces what?

T3 and T4 produced and stored in gland, Also produces calcitonin

9

Most common endocrine dz in cats is?

hyperthyroid (cause is unknown)

10

Beta cell tumor hypersecretion of insulin

insulinoma

11

Adrenal gland cortex produces what hormones?

glucocortiocoids (cushings), mineralcorticoids, androgenic (sex) hormones

12

What does the parathyroid hormone do?

1) Stimulates bone resorption
2) Renal calcium resorption
3) Mediates intestinal calcium absorption

13

What's the most common endocrine disease in birds?

thyroid

14

Helps maintain normal blood calcium level by exerting an effect opposite to that of calcitonin -> helps prevent hypocalcemia

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) or Parathormone

15

T/F Parathyroid disease is a primary disease usually from adenoma or carcinoma, which many animals will not show any signs

true

16

Pancreas:
1) ____ – “pushes” blood glucose into cells -> lowers blood glucose
2) ___– effects are opposite those of insulin -> stimulates liver to convert glycogen to glucose & stimulates gluconeogenesis -> raises blood glucose
3) _____ – inhibits secretion of insulin & glucagon and reduces activity of gi tract

1) insulin
2) glucagon
3) somatostatin

17

Regulation of blood levels of glucose by beta cells (islets of Langerhaans) and produces insulin

pancreas

18

Which gland acts as a bridge between the nervous system and the endocrine system?

Pituitary gland

19

List two clinical signs seen in pets suspected of having hyperthyroidism.

-Weight loss with increased appetite
-Polyphagia
-Vomiting
-Tachycardia w/ or w/o murmur

20

Pertaining to Addison’s disease, what gland is malfunctioning?

Adrenal gland (cortex)

21

With Addison's disease, what group of chemicals is not being secreted adequately?

Mineralcorticoids

22

Which endocrine disease can be caused by either a pituitary gland or an adrenal gland tumor in dogs?

Hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing’s Dz)

23

Which domestic species is presented most commonly for hypothyroidism? hyperthyroidism? Insulinoma?

Dog, Cat, Ferret

24

What is the difference between diabetes mellitus (DM) and an insulinoma with regards to lab results?

-DM: hyperglycemia, +/- decreased insulin levels; -insulinoma: hypoglycemia, increased insulin

25

List the 2 endocrine diseases that are very commonly seen in pet ferrets in the United States.

AAE/Hyperadrenocorticism, insulinoma

26

Avian thyroid problems result primarily from what husbandry issue

all seed diet

27

Besides administration of insulin, treatment of DM involves regulation of the pet’s ____

diet

28

Diabetes insipidus results from a deficiency of or lack of response to which hormone?

ADH

29

Clinical signs of periodontal disease

-Halitosis
-Reluctance to chew
-Pawing at mouth
-Nasal discharge
-Facial swelling
-Tooth loss

30

Lip-Fold Dermatitis: signs, cause, prevention

-Common in breed with pendulous upper lips and prominent lower lip folds
-Constant moisture from saliva creates environment for bacterial growth
-halitosis, debris collection
-clean area/keep dry