Flashcards in Animal Medicine 2 Deck (423)
Modified neurons in the hypothalamus produce two hormones:
Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis) "master gland" has two separate structures which are?
-Derived from glandular tissue
-7 hormones produced when stimulated by the hypothalamus & direct feedback from target organs & tissues
-Derived from the nervous system
-Does not produce hormones
-Stores and releases two hormones (produced by the hypothalamus)
Adrenal cortex produces too much glucocorticoid hormone(cortisol), Excessive administration of glucocorticoid drugs
Hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing’s Syndrome)
Deficiency of adrenocortical hormones
Sudden withdrawal of corticosteroid drugs that have been given long-term
Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison’s Dz)
Inner portion derived from nervous tissue, Two very similar hormones are produced Epinephrine, Norepinephrine
The two methods that control hormone secretion are?
1) Negative Feedback Systems (ex thyroid gland)
2) Direct stimulation from the nervous system (ex adrenal medulla)
Most commonly diseased organs in ___
SA (thyroid, adrenal, pancreas, parathyroid and gonads)
The thyroid gland produces what?
T3 and T4 produced and stored in gland, Also produces calcitonin
Most common endocrine dz in cats is?
hyperthyroid (cause is unknown)
Beta cell tumor hypersecretion of insulin
Adrenal gland cortex produces what hormones?
glucocortiocoids (cushings), mineralcorticoids, androgenic (sex) hormones
What does the parathyroid hormone do?
1) Stimulates bone resorption
2) Renal calcium resorption
3) Mediates intestinal calcium absorption
What's the most common endocrine disease in birds?
Helps maintain normal blood calcium level by exerting an effect opposite to that of calcitonin -> helps prevent hypocalcemia
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) or Parathormone
T/F Parathyroid disease is a primary disease usually from adenoma or carcinoma, which many animals will not show any signs
1) ____ – “pushes” blood glucose into cells -> lowers blood glucose
2) ___– effects are opposite those of insulin -> stimulates liver to convert glycogen to glucose & stimulates gluconeogenesis -> raises blood glucose
3) _____ – inhibits secretion of insulin & glucagon and reduces activity of gi tract
Regulation of blood levels of glucose by beta cells (islets of Langerhaans) and produces insulin
Which gland acts as a bridge between the nervous system and the endocrine system?
List two clinical signs seen in pets suspected of having hyperthyroidism.
-Weight loss with increased appetite
-Tachycardia w/ or w/o murmur
Pertaining to Addison’s disease, what gland is malfunctioning?
Adrenal gland (cortex)
With Addison's disease, what group of chemicals is not being secreted adequately?
Which endocrine disease can be caused by either a pituitary gland or an adrenal gland tumor in dogs?
Hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing’s Dz)
Which domestic species is presented most commonly for hypothyroidism? hyperthyroidism? Insulinoma?
Dog, Cat, Ferret
What is the difference between diabetes mellitus (DM) and an insulinoma with regards to lab results?
-DM: hyperglycemia, +/- decreased insulin levels; -insulinoma: hypoglycemia, increased insulin
List the 2 endocrine diseases that are very commonly seen in pet ferrets in the United States.
Avian thyroid problems result primarily from what husbandry issue
all seed diet
Besides administration of insulin, treatment of DM involves regulation of the pet’s ____
Diabetes insipidus results from a deficiency of or lack of response to which hormone?
Clinical signs of periodontal disease
-Reluctance to chew
-Pawing at mouth