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Flashcards in Ancient Philosophical Influences Deck (29)
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1

Who was Plato?

Philosopher who taught Aristotle

2

Why did late turn to philosophy?

Saw Socrates die
Socrates made people admit they were stupid and was put on trial, drank poison and died

3

Heraclitus

State of flux or change

4

Dualist

Belief in two distinct principle having two parts

5

Absolutist

Things intrinsically wrong or right

6

Rationalist

Reality has a logical structure that we can work out using our reason

7

How did Plato view the world?

Through reason

8

The realm of the forms

A realm that humans can only access through their ability to reason

9

Platos conclusions

Reason=philosopher kings, rulers of society (most intelligent)
Spirit/emotion/pride= auxiliary class of soldiers and police ( PK tell you what to do to keep system going)
Appetite - workers who keep state functioning through labour

10

Anamnesis

Learn through education

11

The realm of appearances

Accessed through senses

12

Which form did Plato view the most superior?

Forms as he believes the only way to access the soul is through reason
Perfect form of everything

13

Platos aims

Show contrasts between the two forms
Explain philosopher search for knowledge
Show ignorance of humanity

14

What politics/ethics did Aristotle put forward?

Every value can go down in the middle of 2 extremes

15

Lyceum

Set up Lyceum against platos academy
Taught ordinary people people philosophy

16

Essence

Something making it unique

17

Empiricist

Primary substances, ultimate realities

18

Potentially

Possibility of doing something of becoming something

19

Actuality

When potential Is achieved

20

4 causes of existence

Material
Formal
Efficient
Final

21

Material cause

Thing out of which an abject is created

22

Formal cause

Expression, idea of plan that led to the creation of object,characteristics

23

Efficient cause

Way in which object is created

24

Final cause

Aim for which object is created

25

Teleological

Most important cause

26

Tells of humans

Good life
Eudaemonia

27

Aristotle idea of god

Forms to only exist as part of things in this world
Disagreed with platos forms

28

Prime mover

Pure thought
Initial cause
Intimate cause, finishes purpose
Unchanging
Simple
Not physical
Impersonal and transcendent

29

Evaluating prime mover

Existence of universe is a brute fact requiring no final cause
If prime mover is god then it very friendly
Where did matter come from if prime mover is thought only?