In this picture, what are the vertical and horizontal lines?
Vertical are midclavicular lines
Horizontal lines are subcostal plane (superior) and transpyloric plane (inferior)
What are some examples of foregut diseases?
What are some examples of midgut diseases?
Small bowel obstruction
'Proximal' colon cancer
What are some examples of hindgut diseases?
Large bowel obstruction
Carcinoma of colon
Why do we divide the abdomen into 9 areas?
To localise pain to understand what disease/pathology is causing it
How long is the oesophagus?
How many constrictions does the oesophagus have?
What are the 3 constrictions of the oesophagus?
Thoracic (broncho-aortic) cross by arch of aorta and left main bronchus
Diaphragmatic where is passes through the oesophageal hiatus
How far is the cervical constriction of the oesophagus from the incisor teeth?
How far is the thoracic constriction of the oesophagus from the incisor teeth?
22.5cm and 27.5cm
How far is the diaphragmatic constriction of the oesophagus from the incisor teeth?
Why is awareness of the 3 oesophagus constrictions important?
For passing instruments through the oesophagus into the stomach
What are the different parts of the stomach?
What are the 2 curvatures of the stomach?
What is the purpose of the pyloric sphincter?
Control discharge of stomach contents into the duodenum
What is the stomach bed formed by?
Diaphragm, spleen, left kidney, adrenal gland, splenic artery, pancreas, transverse mesocolon and colon
What are some examples of clinical stomach issues?
Congenital pyloric stenosis
Carcinoma of the stomach
Gastric ulcers and vagotomy
What is congenital pyloric stenosis?
Thickening of the smooth muscle in the pyloris
Where does the liver lie relative to the ribs?
Deep to ribs 7 to 11 on the right side
What is the portal triad?
Distinctive component of a hepatic lobule found rubbing along each of the lobules corners that consists of branches of the hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein and bile ducts
What is the portal triad formed from?
Hepatic portal vein
What do bilary ducts carry?
Bile from the liver to the gallbladder
Where is bile produced?
Where is bile stored?
Stored and concentrated in the gallbladder
What is the artery of the gallbladder?
Where does the cystic artery lie?
In the triangle of calot
What is the pancreas?
Accessory digestive gland
What kind of gland is the pancreas?
Both exocrine and endocrine
What does the exocrine pancreas produce?
What does the endocrine pancreas produce?
Insulin and glucagon