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Flashcards in Anatomy and Physiology Deck (40)
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synthesize and store digestive enzymes



-connects all body systems and provides structural support -makes up skin, ligaments and tendons

Connective Tissue


Function: protects underlying tissue Disorders: acne, burns, dermatitis

Integumentary System


  • receives information from the body, interprets the information and directs all motor activity for the body; coordinates all the activities of the body
  • made up of two parts:
    • Central Nervous System (CNS): contains the brain and spinal cord
      • protected by cerebrospinal fluid and bones
    • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): includes the ganglia and the nerves
      • nerves transmit impulses from one another to accomplish voluntary/involuntary processes; surrounded by myelin sheaths that insulate the nerves and facilitate transmission of impulses
  • brain function remains stable until the age of 80 and then processing of information/short-term memory may slow

Nervous System


  • forms a 24-foot tube
  • includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and sigmoid colon
    • mouth: where digestion begins; enzymes are secreted here in response to food intake
    • esophagus: food passes through here into the stomach
    • stomach: pouch-shaped organ that collects and holds food for a period of time and further digestion occurs
    • small intestine (nutrient absorption): begins at distal end of stomach, contains many villi that increase the absorption of nutrients; terminates in the rectum
    • large intestine (removes water from waste products/forms the stool): originates at distal end of small intestine and terminates at rectum; 4 feet long and has 3 segments (ascending, transverse, descending); responsible for peristalsis that moves waste through intestine
  • system declines more slowly than other body systems; changes usually result of lifestyle/medication use

Digestive System


directs all cellular activities and contains the DNA-specific chromosomes for the individual



-cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body -least prevalent of these are basophils comprising less than 1% of these -neutrophils account for roughly 60% of these

Leukocyte (WBC)


transports oxygen throughout the body

Erythrocyte (RBC)


coordinated structure of various tissue types that performs a specific function for the body



-groups of cells that perform specific functions -4 types: epithelial, muscle, connective, nervous



creates lipids which are necessary for cellular structure

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum


  1. Blood enters right atrium from superior/inferiro vena cava
  2. flows through right AV valve into right ventricle
  3. right ventricle contracts forcing pulmonary valve to open
  4. flows through pulmonary valve into pulmonary trunk
  5. distributed by right and left pulmonary arteries to the lungs
  6. CO2 unloads and O2 is loaded (OXYGENATION)
  7. blood returns from lungs via pulmonary veins to left atrium
  8. flows through left AV valve into left ventricle
  9. left ventricle contracts and forces aortic valve open
  10. flows through aortic valve into ascending aorta
  11. blood in aorta is distributed to every organ in the body
  12. O2 unloads and COis loaded (DEOXYGENATION)
  13. deoxygenated blood returns to heart via vena cave (goes back to step 1 in cycle)

Blood Flow


create the proteins that are necessary for all bodily functions



heart, lungs and thymus

Thoracic Body Cavity


Function: provides support, protects organs Disorders: arthritis, osteoporosis

Skeletal System


cells, tissues, organs, organ systems

Structural Units of Human Body


  • consists of the airway, lungs and respiratory muscles
    • airway: pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles
    • lungs: contain air-filled sacs called alveoli
      • covered by a visceral layer of double-layered pleural membrane
    • respiratory muscles: intercostal muscles located between the ribs and the diaphragm (largest muscle in body) separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity

Respiratory System


  • includes kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra
    • kidneys: nephron is the functional unit of the kidneys (1 million in each kidney); regulate fluid/electrolyte balance; contributes to control of blood pressure
    • ureters: hollow tubes that allow urine formed in kidneys to pass to the bladder
    • bladder: hollow mucous lined pouch with ureters entering the upper portion and urethra exiting from bottom; stores urine and regulates process of urination
    • urethra: tubular structure lines with mucous membrane that connects bladder with outside of body

Urinary System


  • organs include eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin that contain special receptor cells that transmit info to nervous system
  • elderly experience decline in acuity of all senses and eyesight and hearing are most commonly affected by chronic diseases

Sensory System


function and processes of living organisms



includes the organs of the thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity

Ventral Body Cavity (Anterior)


Function: secretes hormones, reproduction Disorders: infertility, STI's

Reproductive System


provides a barrier between the cellular contents and the environment and regulates the substances that cross the membrane in either direction

Cell Membrane


responsible for cellular division and reproduction



urinary bladder, sigmoid colon, male and female reproductive organs

Pelvic Body Cavity


contains brain and spinal cord

Dorsal Body Cavity (Posterior)


Function: maintains tissue fluid balance Disorders: immune disorders

Lymphatic System


the intracellular fluid where all cellular reactions occur



responsible for energy production



Function: transports hormones Disorders: hypo or hyperthyroidism

Endocrine System