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Flashcards in anatomy Deck (33)
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venous gonadal drainage

left ovary/testis --> left gonadal vein --> left renal vein --> IVC

right ovary/testis --> right gonadal vein --> IVC

**LEFT TAKES THE LONG WAY**

4

why is a varicocele more likely on the left side?

left spermatic veine nters the left renal vein at a 90 degree angle so flow is less contonious then the right side --> left venous pressure is higher than the right --> left more likely to varicocele

5

gonadal lymphatic drainage

ovaries/testes --> para-aortic lymph nodes

distal vagina/vulva/scrotum --> superficial inguinal nodes

proximal vagina/uterus --> obturator, external iliac and hypogastric lymph nodes

6

infundibulopelvic ligament

suspensory ligament of the ovaries

connects ovaries to lateral pelvic wall; contains ovarian vessels

7

during an oophorectomy, ligate which vessels to avoid bleeding?

ovarian vessels

8

what is at risk during an oophorectomy?

ureter courses retroperitoneally, close to gonadal vessels!! at risk of ligation!

9

cardinal ligament

connects the cervix to the side wall of pelvis

contains uterine vessels

10

during hysterectomy, what do you ligate to avoid bleeding? what is at risk?

ligate the uterine vessels

and the ureter is at risk!

11

round ligament of the uterus

connects the uterine fundus to labia majora

derivative of the gubernaculum and travels through the round inguinal canal

12

broad ligament

connects the uterus, fallopian tubes, and the ovaries to the pelvic side wall

contains ovaries, fallopian tubes, and round ligaments of the uterus

made up of three components = mesosalpinx, mesometrium, and mesovarium

13

three parts of the broad ligament

mesosalpinx, mesometrium, mesovarium

14

ovarian ligament

connects medial pole of ovary to lateral uterus

derived from gubernaculum

"ovarian Ligament Latches to Lateral uterus"

15

female reproductive histology

1- vagina

2 - ectocervix

3 - endocervix

4 - transformation zone

5 - uterus

6- fallopian tube

7 - ovary outer surface

1 - stratified squamous epi, nonkeratinized

2 - stratified squamous epi, nonkeratinized

3 - simple columnar epi

4 - squamocolumnar junction

5 - simple columnar epithelium with long tubular glands

6 - simple columnar epi, many ciliated cels, a few secretory (peg) cells

7 - simple cuboidal epi (germinal epi covering surface of ovary)

 

16

most common location for cervical cancer?

transformation zone = squamocolumnar junction

17

female sexual response cycle (1,2,3,4)

what mediates it?

4 steps --> excitement (uterus elevates/vaginal lubrication), plateau (expansion of inner vagina), orgasm (contraction of uterus), and resolution

 

mediated by the ANS; causes tachycardia and skin flushing

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21

pathway of sperm during ejaculation

SEVEN UP

Seminiferous tubules

Epididymis

Vas deferens

Ejaculatory ducts

(Nothing) Urethra

Penis

22

erection is controlled by:

emission is controlled by:

parasympathetic nervous system (Point)

sympathetic nervous system (Shoot)

23

erection mechanism

1) NO -->

2) norepinephrine -->

NO --> increases cGMP --> smooth muscle relaxation --> vasodilation --> proerectile

norepinephrine --> increases Ca influx --> smooth muscle contraction --> vasoconstriction --> antierectile

24

nerve that controls erection?

nerve that controls emission?

erection by pelvic nerve (parasympathetic)

emission by hypogastric nerve (Sympathetic)

25

ejaculation control

visceral and somatic nerves

(pudendal nerve)

26

how do vildenafil/sildenafil work?

they increase/lengthen erection!

by inhibiting cGMP breakdown --> can last longer

27

spermatogonia

function and location?

maintain germ pool and produce spermatocytes

they line the seminiferous tubules

28

leydig cells

location and function?

located in interstitium of seminiferous tubules

they secrete testosterone in the prescence of LH; testosterone production is unaffected by temperature

29

sertoli cells

location and function?

located in seminiferous tubules

Sertoli cells Support Sperm Synthesis

-secrete androgen binding protein --> maintain testosterone levels

-tight junctions form a blood-testis barrier --> isolates gametes from immune attack

-support and nourish spermatozoa

-produce MIF

 

30

sertoli cells or leydig cells: which is temperature sensitive?

sertoli cells are Sensitive

when T increases, sperm production decreases and decreased inhibin

--increased temperature is seen in varicocele and cryptorchidism