Anatomic Basis of Clinical Testing Pt. 1 (9/3a) Flashcards Preview

PT605 > Anatomic Basis of Clinical Testing Pt. 1 (9/3a) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomic Basis of Clinical Testing Pt. 1 (9/3a) Deck (30)
Loading flashcards...
1

How we understand patient anatomy

Observing, palpatings, imaging, clinical tests (EX: PT kits)

2

Studying Anatomy (Anatomy Approaches)

Regional approach
Systemic approach
Clinical anatomy

3

Regional approach (Anatomy Approaches)

Head, Neck, Trunk (abdomen, thorax, pelvis/perineum, back), Upper limbs, Lower Limbs

Regions further subdivided

We will do this each unit

4

Systemic approach (Anatomy Approaches)

Cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, immune, integumentary, lymphatic, muscular, nervous, reproductive, respiratory, skeletal, urinary

1 I, 2 S, 3 A, 4 M, 5 N, 6 C, 7 D, 8 R, 9 U, 10 G, 11 E

No systems function in isolation

5

Clinical anatomy (Anatomy Approaches)

Stresses clinical application

Consider how the systems interrelate

EX: Ulnar nerve at the elbow - Instead of “the nerve innervates…..” ask “numbness in this location indicates what nerve?”

6

3 main planes of the body

Sagittal, frontal, transverse

7

Relationships in plane movement

Superior/Inferior
Proximal/Distal
Anterior/Posterior
Medial/Lateral
Superficial/Deep
Dorsal/Ventral

8

Motions related to anatomic neutral

Flexion/Extension
Abduction/Adduction
Medial Rotation/Lateral Rotation
Supination/Pronation

9

Major divisions of the nervous system

Central NS/Peripheral NS
Somatic/Autonomic
Afferent/Efferent

10

Functional unit of the nervous system

neuron

11

Cell body (neuron)

cell’s life support center

12

Dendrites (neuron)

receive messages from other cells

13

Axon (neuron)

passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands

14

Neural impulse (neuron)

electrical signal traveling down the axon

15

Myelin sheath (neuron)

covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed up neural impulses

16

Terminal branches of axon (neuron)

form junctions with other cells

17

Spinal cord segments

31 spinal cord segments:

8 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral
1 coccygeal

18

Spinal nerves arise from rootlets into

Anterior (ventral) nerve root – efferent fibers

Posterior (dorsal) nerve root – afferent fibers

19

Mixed nerves

“Sensory nerve” mostly sensory afferents some motor fibers

sweat and smooth muscle vessels

“motor nerve’ mostly motor some sensory: pain and proprioception info

20

Dermatomes

provide surface sensory innervation

Segmental cutaneous (skin) innervations (afferent)

21

Myotomes

provide muscle innervation

Segmental innervation of muscles (efferent)

22

Axons from spinal nerves combine to ultimately form ___ ___

peripheral nerves

23

Symptoms of nervous system impairment

Paresthesia

Diminished/lost sensation

Weakness (decreased innervation to muscle)

Pain

Movement dysfunction

24

Paresthesia

sensation of tickling, tingling, burning, pricking, or numbness of a person's skin

25

Causes of nervous system impairment

Too much pressure

Ischemia (blood loss)

Metabolic/chemical changes (EX: diabetic neuropathy)

Disease

Trauma

26

Pattern recognition - Sensory

Spinal nerve distribution - dermatome

Peripheral nerve distribution - myotome

Spinal cord distribution (later)

Brachial plexus (trunk, cord) distribution (later)

Brain distribution (later)

27

3 types of sensory testing

Superficial
Deep
Combined cortical

28

Superficial Sensory Testing (exteroceptors)

Pain, temperature, light touch, pressure

29

Deep Sensory Testing (proprioceptors)

Position sense, kinesthesia, vibration

30

Combined Cortical Sensory Testing

Stereognosis, 2-pt. discrimination, graphesthesia, texture, barognosis