Anaesthetic Emergencies Flashcards Preview

Veterinary Nursing Anaesthesia and Analgesia > Anaesthetic Emergencies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anaesthetic Emergencies Deck (26)
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1

How many anaesthetic procedures are without risk to the patient?

None

2

What can aid in reducing the risk of anaesthetics?

- Monitoring
- Adequate pre-anaesthetic assessments
- Appropriate use of anaesthetic drugs

3

What is the most common cause of anaesthetic emergencies

Human error

4

Why might human error occur? Name 4

- Fatigue
- Failure to take adequate history / pre-op assessment
- Personnel rushed or pre-occupied
- Lack of familiarity with circuits and drugs
- Inattentiveness
- Incorrect admin of drugs

5

What equipment errors may cause anaesthetic emergencies? Name 3

- Vaporiser problems
- Misassembly (though also human error)
- APL valve problems
- ET tube problems
- Empty O2 tank
- CO2 absorber exhausted
- HUMAN ERROR with equipment

6

Name 3 emergencies caused by anaesthetic agents?

- ACP used in hypovolaemic patients
- Halothane may cause cardiac dysrhythmias
-Not ensuring sedative and analgesic have been used
- Xylazine may cause bradycardia and vomiting

7

How is the risk of emergencies by anaesthetic agents reduced?

- Use of appropriate pre-med

8

How can patient variation create emergencies?

-Patient conditions
- Patient may suffer from a disease already
- Neonates unable to fully excrete drugs (liver not fully developed)
- Health conditions e.g. geriatric, obese
- Brachycephalics
- Predisposition e.g. dobermans and vonwillebrands disease, sighthounds dont have much body fat

9

What are the principles of emergency care? (Theres 5)

- Alert the VS
- Stay calm and don't panic
- Prioritise
- Be aware where the emergency kit is kept
- Keep emergency drug dosage sheets in view or in easy access points

10

What 5 things should you check with the emergency crash kit?

- where is it located
- drug dosage sheets
- Replace used items
- Stock take regularly
- Check expiry dates regularly

11

Name the 8 drugs commonly found in the crash kit?

- Atropine
- Adrenaline (epinephrine)
- Lignocaine (without epinephrine)
- Diazepam (valium)
- Narcan (naloxone)
- Dopamine / dobutamine
- Doxopram (dopram)
- Atipamezole (antisedan)

12

What is the function of atipamezole?

Alpha-2-adrenoreceptor antagonist
- Reverse or partially reverse effects of medetomidine

13

What is the function of Doxapram (dopram)

- Analeptic drug
- Stimulates respiratory and central nervous system

14

Why is dopamine / dobutamine given?

- Increase force of myocardial contraction

15

What is Diazepam given?

- Treats seizures

16

Why is lignocaine given?

To treat arrhythmias

17

Why is adrenaline given?

- Indicated for bradycardia / cardiac arrest
- Increases heart rate and force of contraction

18

Why is atropine given?

Cases of bradycardia
Reduces vagal tone

19

What are the four common anaesthetic emergencies? (4)

- Patient too light
- Patient too deep
- Respiratory arrest
- Cardiac arrest

20

How many patient survive CPR (%)

10%

21

What key equipment is there for anaesthetic emergencies? (4)

- Defibrillator
- Self-inflating resuscitator bag (ambu bag)
- Urinary catheter
- IV catheter

22

When is a defibrillator used?

-In cardiac arrest
- To stimulate heart beat and myocardial contractions
- May be used in certain arrhythmias

23

When is a self-inflating rususcuitator bag used?

Respiratory arrest to provide IPPV

24

Why is a urinary catheter used in an emergency?

To administer drugs via ET tubes

25

Why is an IV catheter used in emergencies?

Emergency access for drugs, fluids etc.

26

What are the six key golden rules when there is an anaesthetic emergency?

- Stay calm and alert the vet
- Turn off the vaporiser
- Make sure you know how to deliver IPPV
- Be familiar with cardiac compressions
- Have a well stocked crash kit/box to hand with drug dosages
- Team work