Flashcards in Anaesthetic Emergencies Deck (26)
How many anaesthetic procedures are without risk to the patient?
What can aid in reducing the risk of anaesthetics?
- Adequate pre-anaesthetic assessments
- Appropriate use of anaesthetic drugs
What is the most common cause of anaesthetic emergencies
Why might human error occur? Name 4
- Failure to take adequate history / pre-op assessment
- Personnel rushed or pre-occupied
- Lack of familiarity with circuits and drugs
- Incorrect admin of drugs
What equipment errors may cause anaesthetic emergencies? Name 3
- Vaporiser problems
- Misassembly (though also human error)
- APL valve problems
- ET tube problems
- Empty O2 tank
- CO2 absorber exhausted
- HUMAN ERROR with equipment
Name 3 emergencies caused by anaesthetic agents?
- ACP used in hypovolaemic patients
- Halothane may cause cardiac dysrhythmias
-Not ensuring sedative and analgesic have been used
- Xylazine may cause bradycardia and vomiting
How is the risk of emergencies by anaesthetic agents reduced?
- Use of appropriate pre-med
How can patient variation create emergencies?
- Patient may suffer from a disease already
- Neonates unable to fully excrete drugs (liver not fully developed)
- Health conditions e.g. geriatric, obese
- Predisposition e.g. dobermans and vonwillebrands disease, sighthounds dont have much body fat
What are the principles of emergency care? (Theres 5)
- Alert the VS
- Stay calm and don't panic
- Be aware where the emergency kit is kept
- Keep emergency drug dosage sheets in view or in easy access points
What 5 things should you check with the emergency crash kit?
- where is it located
- drug dosage sheets
- Replace used items
- Stock take regularly
- Check expiry dates regularly
Name the 8 drugs commonly found in the crash kit?
- Adrenaline (epinephrine)
- Lignocaine (without epinephrine)
- Diazepam (valium)
- Narcan (naloxone)
- Dopamine / dobutamine
- Doxopram (dopram)
- Atipamezole (antisedan)
What is the function of atipamezole?
- Reverse or partially reverse effects of medetomidine
What is the function of Doxapram (dopram)
- Analeptic drug
- Stimulates respiratory and central nervous system
Why is dopamine / dobutamine given?
- Increase force of myocardial contraction
What is Diazepam given?
- Treats seizures
Why is lignocaine given?
To treat arrhythmias
Why is adrenaline given?
- Indicated for bradycardia / cardiac arrest
- Increases heart rate and force of contraction
Why is atropine given?
Cases of bradycardia
Reduces vagal tone
What are the four common anaesthetic emergencies? (4)
- Patient too light
- Patient too deep
- Respiratory arrest
- Cardiac arrest
How many patient survive CPR (%)
What key equipment is there for anaesthetic emergencies? (4)
- Self-inflating resuscitator bag (ambu bag)
- Urinary catheter
- IV catheter
When is a defibrillator used?
-In cardiac arrest
- To stimulate heart beat and myocardial contractions
- May be used in certain arrhythmias
When is a self-inflating rususcuitator bag used?
Respiratory arrest to provide IPPV
Why is a urinary catheter used in an emergency?
To administer drugs via ET tubes
Why is an IV catheter used in emergencies?
Emergency access for drugs, fluids etc.