Al-Andalus (unit 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Al-Andalus (unit 2) Deck (39)
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1

Why was possible the expansion of Islam?

The expansion was possible due to the military power

2

First 4 caliphs were Muhammad ______________. This provoked a ________________.

Name the 2 divisions and what did they believe.

First 4 caliphs were Muhammad RELATIVES. This provoked a DIVISSION.

SHIA:Caliph should be a Muhammad's descendant.
SUNNIS:They believe that Caliph should be chosen among believers.

3

Umayyad dynasty:

(661-750)Capital in Damascus -------|Great expansion

4

Abbasid dynasty:

(750-1258) Capital in Baghdad----------| regions became independent

5

Turks:

Govern the Caliphate from 13th Century and conquered Constantinople (1453)

6

What is the islamization?

The people that were conquered adopted islamic religion and culture

7

In the 8th century there was a crisis in which there were problems of .....

There were problems such as:
-Economic problems
-Rivalries between nobles.

8

In the 8th century there was a Civil War. What happened ??

There was a division between those who supported an elective monarchy (Roderic) and those who wanted and hereditary one (Achila). Roderic when and Achila asked for help to the governor of Tunisia. (He was an enemy)

9

BATTLE OF GUADALETE

when was it?
who fought?
who won?

In Battle of Guadalete Visigoths fought against Muslims in the 711. And in that battle Roderic died.

10

What happened after Muslims won the Battle of Guadalete?

They conquered the Iberian Peninsula easily because Visigoths surrounded.

11

When did they conquered all the Iberian Peninsula? Which was the place that they didn't conquer?

The conquered the whole Iberian Peninsula except Cantabrian Mountains in 718.

12

What does the word MULADI mean?

After the conquest people that converted to Islam and spoke Arabic were called MULADI

13

What does de the word MOZARAB mean?

After the conquest people who remained christians were called MOZARABS and they were tolerated but sometimes persecuted.

14

How long did the Dependent Emirate lasted?

Between 718 till 756

15

Who ruled an Emirate?

An Emir

16

How long did the Independent Emirate lasted?

Between 756 till 929

17

Who fled to Córdoba? Why? When?

Abd-Al-Raham fled to Córdoba in 756 because Ummayad Dynasty was expelled from the caliphate.

18

What did Abd-Al-Rahman did?

He declared himself as the new emir of Córdoba and got the independence from the Caliphate-----} UMAYYAD EMIRATE OF CÓRDOBA

19

What problems were in the 10 century?

There were: internal rebellions, attacks by Christians and less maritime trade

20

What did Abd-Al-Rahman III did?

He proclaimed himself as the new caliph, and he became independent from Baghdad.

21

When did they stopped the advance of Christians?

They stopped the advance of Christians until the 13th century.

22

What was the only city that resisted the advance of the Christians? Why was important?

The city of Granada, was an important centre of trade.

23

Thanks to what stopped the Christians and conquered more lands?

Thanks to Al-Mansur expeditions.

24

Cities were surrounded by........

Cities were surrounded by WALLS

25

A new social group appeared. How was it call? What did they do?

They were called ALFAQUÍES and they were; artisans, traders....

26

They were two types of social group in Al-Andalus, muslims and not muslims, and inside those groups more groups. How were it called? +info

SOCIAL GROUPS:
muslims:
1)ARABS:Minority. They came from Arabia at the beginning of the conquest.
2)BERBERS:Arrived to help in conquest from North Africa
3)MULADIES: Christians that convert into islam----Majority

not muslims:They had to pay taxes and less rights.
1)MOZARABS: in cities. Christians that didn't convert.
2)JEWS:they had more autonomy and worked in trade and science.

27

___________ were grouped in _____________ according to their ____________

ARTISANS were grouped in NEIGHBORHOODS, according to their JOB.

28

How were the typical markets called?

They were called souks.

29

What was the name of the currency that they have?

They only have one currency: DINAR (golden) and DIRHAM (silver).

30

What was the most important discipline in Islamic art? What did they do?

The most important discipline was architecture and they build mosque.