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Flashcards in Aging Deck (12)
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1

Definition of aging

def: gradual loss in reserve capacity of organs and organ systems leading eventually to functional impairment and ultimately death.

2

What are some of the reduced homeostatic responses common in the elderly?

Baroreceptor Responsieness; increased postural hypotension

Thermoregulatory responses: higher hypothermia, hyperthermia

Cardiac Reserve: fluid overload

Thirst: dehydration

Dark adaptation: night driving hazardous

3

What is the MC early sign of aging?

difficulty staying up all night and working the next day.

4

Signs of Aging in:
-30s
-40s
-50s and early 60s
-70's and 80's

30s:
-easier weight gain
-graying hair, thinning hair
-wrinkling forehead and eyes
-concern about biologic clock, financial security, family obligations
-injuries "weekend warrior"

40s:
-reflection on mortality, life's limitations, unreached dreams and goals
-skin changes; saggging, wrinkling, thinning
-vision changes: presbyopia***
-osteoarthritis:

50 & 60s:
-menopaus
-becoming a grandparent
-death of friends, parents
-oldest at work
-medical problems, physical limitations


70-80's:
-one or more chronic disabling conditions
-arthritis, HTN, hearing loss, bone problems, heart conditions , bone problems
-retirement
-death of spouse
-children move away
-retirement living

5

Aging Changes in Organ Systems:
-Hematologic
-musculoskeletal
-skin

Hematlogic:
-RBC, hgb, HCT decrease slightly after 65YO
-WBC: impaired phagocytic activity
-ESR increase slightly
-physiologic anemia of aging

MusculoskeletaL:
-average 2-4inches loss in height
-loss of skin elasticity, joint stiffness
-calcification of CT (Atherosclerotic changes, degenerative joint dz)
-decrease in bone mineral content
-decrease in muscle mass

Skin:
-decreased tone and elasticity
-decline in subQ adipose tissue
-yellowing of nails, rigid nails
-hair loss after 30 in men
-decrease in pigment

6

Aging Changes in Organ Systems:
-resp
-CV

Resp:
-decrease in alveolar size
-physiologic work capacity of 70YO is only half that of a 20YO
-vital capacity decreases
-elastic recoil decreases d/t changes in collagen
-forced residual capacity increases


CV:
-reduced vascular compliance (increased collagen and decreased elastic tissue)
-CO decreases by 1%/year between 25-70 years of age
-slight reduction in resting HR
-decreased organ perfusion
-blood flow reduced by 50% to kidney andd 20% cerebral hemisphere
-increased SBP

7

Aging Changes in Organ Systems:
-Renal
-alimentary canal

REnal:
-after 40YO decreased nephron units
-renal blood vessels thicken, lose elasticity
-loss of juxtamedullary golmeruli
-glomerular filtration rate and CrCl decline
--by 80YO the glomerular filtration rate has decreased by 50%
-prostate gland doubles in size

Alimentary:
-loss of teeth
-periodontal dz
-lower esophageal sphincter fails to relax
-delayed entry of food into the stomach
0GERD
-decrease in gastric emptying time
-atrophic gastritis and pernicious anemia
-gastric secretions reduced
-unable to absorb B-12
-chronic constipation
-diverticulosis (decreased colon muscle tone)
-bowel ischemia (decreased perfusion)
-increased incidence of cholelithiasis
-decreased pancreatic lipase activity

8

Aging Changes in Organ Systems:
-men
-parathyroid
-cerebral

Men:
-decreased sperm transport; thickened basement membrane around seminiferous tubules
-sperm production decrease

Parathyroid:
-women; decreases at age 40
-men: rise until age 60

Cerebral:
-decreased cerebral hemisphere mass
-decrease in NT (dopamine)
-slowed reflexes
-motor time increase with aging (slowing of activity from reduction in conduction)
-decreased vibratory sensation, hand grip, strenght, coordination, writing

9

Aging Changes in Organ Systems:
-sleep
-memory loss
-ocular changes

Sleep:
-more time in bed, less sleeping time
-frequent night time urination
-arthritic pain

Memory Loss:
-short term is common in the elderly and differentiating this "benign forgetfulness" from early dementia is often possible.
-worrying about memory loss is a sx of normal aging

Ocular:
-cataracts
-macular degeneration
-presbyopia
-decreased number of retinal rods--dark vision

10

Aging Changes in Organ Systems:
-hearing
-taste

hearing:
-decrease with age; high pitched sounds
-decrease in vestibular function -- leads to balance problems

Taste:
-number of tongue papillae and taste buds
-leads to poor nutrition and weight loss

11

What are the 3 factors to successful/healthy aging?

low probability of dz and disability

higher cognitive and physical functioning

an active engagement in life

12

What is:
-disengagement theory
-prototypical disengage person
-activity theory
-continuity theory

Disengagement: voluntary cutting back on work, social and even family ties.

Prototypical disengaged: well known, loved by neighbors
(happily spends all day rocking on front porch talking to passerbyers)

Activity:
-staying as active as possible
-continued profession or volunteer work

Continuity:
-successful psychologic adaptation to aging involves allowing personal preferences from earlier years to manifest themselves as the individual responds to the stress and challenges of older age.