Flashcards in Aggression Deck (261)
What does IDA include?
Gender, cultural or historical bias
Real world applications
What is aggression?
An act carried out with the intention to harm another person.
What is person-oriented aggression?
When the goal is to cause harm to another. This can be through physical or verbal means. It can also occur through showing hostility to another.
What is instrumental aggression?
The goal is to obtain some kind of reward or preferred outcome. This can be played out through coercion of another person.
What is reactive aggression?
A response to a hostile or aggressive situation. Aggression is shown often in response to provocation.
What is sanctioned aggression?
Aggressive behaviour which is either legal or permitted because the ultimate outcome is seen as justifiable.
What does social learning theory say?
That learning can occur simply through observing others-also known as models- in our environment.
What does Bandura say about social learning theory?
That learning occurs from observing others. The mind, behaviour and the environment all play a role in learning behaviour. We learn through observation of models, which may lead to imitation of that behaviour.
What is the advantage of Bandura's approach to social learning theory?
It deals with the major criticism of behaviourist approach, which ignores mental processes, by taking account of cognitive processes.
What are the four conditions for social learning?
Attention: The individual notices someone in their environment
Retention: The individual remembers what they have observed
Moto Reproduction: The individual replicates the behaviour shown by the model
Motivation: The individual seeks to demonstrate the behaviour that they have observed.
What is vicarious reinforcement?
Learning NOT as a result of direct reinforcement, rather an individuals observation of another person's experiences.
What type of models exist?
Live models; physically present in our environment e.g. mother, teacher, pop star etc.
Symbolic Models; e.g. people in films, books, cartoons etc
When is symbolic modelling thought to have a greater effect?
It is considered to have a greater effect on cultures where media is widely available.
Who did the Bobo doll studies?
What did the Bobo Doll studies investigate?
It investigated the effects of observing aggressive behaviour
What type of study what the bob doll studies?
It was a laboratory study
What were the aims of the Bobo doll studies?
To demonstrate that if children were witnesses to an aggressive display by an adult they would imitate this aggressive behaviour when given the opportunity.
What were the hypotheses of the Bobo doll studies?
1. Children exposed to aggressive models will reproduce aggressive acts resembling those of the mdoels
2. Children exposed to non-aggressive models will reproduce less aggressive acts
3. Children will imitate the behaviour of a same-sex model to a greater degree than a model of the opposite sex
4. Boys will be more predisposed than girls towards imitating aggression
What were the participants in the bobo doll studies?
36 boys & 36 girls, between 37-69 months (mean was 4 years & 4 months) All from Stanford University nursery school, and consent were given by the parents. Children were matched on the bases of their pre-existing aggressiveness.
Who were the models in the bobo doll studies?
One male adult and one female adult.
What were the three conditions of the bobo doll studies?
Aggressive condition, non-aggressive condition and the control group. Each had 24 participants.
What was the aggressive conditions in the bobo doll studies?
24 children observed an adult being aggressive to a bobo doll.
What was the non-aggressive conditions in the bobo doll studies?
24 children observed an adult playing and ignoring a bobo doll.
What was the method used in the bobo doll studies?
1. Children were taken to a room with toys in it and either an aggressive or non aggressive model entered the room
2. Mild aggression arousal; shown toys they couldn't play with
3. Children observed in another room to see if they imitate behaviour.
What were the results of the bobo doll studies?
1. Aggressive group participants reproduced physical & verbal aggression used by model
2. Boys produced more physical aggression
3. Participants more likely to imitate same-sex model
4. Participants were shocked & surprised at female model displaying physical & verbal aggression
What conclusions were drawn from the bobo doll studies?
That learning can take place by observation (supports SLT) as reseach demonstates children will imitate behaviour of others in absence of reward/reinforcement. Children more likely to learn from same sex models (gender differences of aggressive behaviours being imitated)
What did Bandura and Walters find in later bobo doll studies?
Found that children who saw the model being rewarded for aggressive acts showed a high level of aggression in their own play. Those who saw the model being punished showed a low level of aggression in their play. This showed learning by vicarious reinforcement.
How did Bandura later extend the bobo doll studies?
He wanted to find out if punishment had prevented learning or punishment prevented performance of the behaviour. He found the latter to be true, as when offered rewards all three groups showed the same level of imitation.
What were the strengths of the research method used in the bobo doll studies?
It is possible to control extraneous variables, such as making sure that children are matched on aggressiveness so that you can be more certain that it is the IV that caused the aggression shown.