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Flashcards in Adolescent Development Deck (29)
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1

What is the function of FSH?

Stimulates granulosa (female) and Sertoli (male) cells

2

What is the function of LH?

Stimulates Leydig and theca cells

3

What is the function of Sertoli cells?

They make AMH and cause the regression of the Mullerian ducts

4

What is the function of Leydig cells?

Make testosterone which promotes growth and differentiation of the Wolfian duct.

5

What is thelarche?

Breast budding

6

What is adrenarche?

First appearance of pubic hair

7

What is gonadarche?

Growth of testes and ovary

8

What is menarche?

First menses cycle

9

What is the first male sign of puberty?

Testes enlargement

10

What is the first female sign of puberty?

Breast budding

11

What are the features of Turner's Syndrome?

– short stature
– webbed neck
– widely spaced nipples – high arched palate
– congenital heart disease

12

What is the cause of Turner's Syndrome?

XO chromosomes which is a problem because 2 X chromosomes are necessary for the development of the ovaries. As a result, there is primary ovarian failure and no E2 is produced.

13

What is the problem in testicular feminization (androgen insensitivity)?

No androgen receptors

14

What is considered delayed for female puberty?

No thelarche by age 13

15

At what time is lack of menarche abnormal?

2.5 years after thelarche

16

What is considered abnormal in the Tanner stages?

Gaps of > 2 stages in different areas is abnormal.

17

What is precocious puberty?

Sexual development prior to the earliest accepted age

18

What is the precocious pubertal age in males?

9 years

19

What is the precocious pubertal age in females?

6 years

20

What occurs in the follicular stage of the menstrual cycle?

Pulsatile GnRH release with increased LH and FSH that leads to ovarian follicle growth and endometrial thickening

21

What occurs in the ovulatory stage of the menstrual cycle?

As E2 increases past a threshold it will switch to positive feedback and cause an LH surge that results in the release of the follicle

22

What occurs in the luteal stage of the menstrual cycle?

Corpus luteum makes progesterone and E2 to prepare uterus for egg implantation and it will regress without fertilization

23

What is menorrhagia?

Normal intervals; increased flow.

24

What is metrorrhagia?

Irregular intervals; normal flow.

25

What is polymenorrhea?

Intervals between menses

26

What is oligomenorrhea?

Intervals between menses >35 days

27

What is menometrorrhagia?

Irregular intervals; increased flow

28

What is one reason menses can occur without ovulation (mostly in adolescents)?

Adolescents have negative feedback of E2 so increased E2 will decrease LH/FSH mid cycle and so there is no ovulation

29

What is another reason menses can occur without ovulation (mostly accompanied by metrorrhagia)?

E2 does not decrease due to NO negative feedback which leads to unopposed E2 that causes continual endometrial growth

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