The leukemic cells themselves can cause _____ or _____ problems.
hyperviscosity; thrombotic problems
B-ALL with abnormalities of 11q23 MLL has a ____ prognosis.
B-lymphoblasts express ____, ____, and/or ____.
CD19, CD22, CD79a
What has the worst prognosis of all ALLs?
What is a solid mass malignancy of precursor lymphoid cells called?
lymphoblasic lymphoma (LBL)
In adults, ____ has a remission rate of 60-80% and cure rates of less than 50%.
AML with inv(16) or t(16;16) CBFB-MYH11 is notable bc of the presence of ____ with _____, called _____.
immature eosinophils; abnormal basophilic granules; baso esos
Why does the t(8;21) cause problems?
RUNX1 and CBF genes are blocked, so blood cells can't differentiate
APL accounts for ____% of AML, and is diagnosed when _____ is found.
What does FLT3 ITD indicate?
T-ALL occurs more commonly in ____ and ____.
males; adolescents and young adults
What is the incidence of ALL?
What antigens are only seen on immature T-cells?
T-lymphoblasts express ____, ____, ____, ____, ____, ____, and/or _____.
CD2, CD3, CD7, CD4, CD8, CD99, CD1a
About 50% of all AML cases have a normal karyotype and are called ____.
AML-NOS (not otherwise specified)
ALL is divided into ____ and _____.
B-lymphoblastic ALL (B-ALL); T-lymphoblastic ALL (T-ALL)
The gene fusion in APL fuses the retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RARA) gene to another, so _____ is blocked.
What do the cells look like in APL?
promyelocytes; hypergranular; Auer rods
What causes the s/s of acute leukemia?
loss of normal hematopoietic elements and blood cells
T-ALL more frequently occurs in ____.
adolescents and young adults
What is RUNX1?
a gene encoding for the alpha unit of core binding factor (CBF), a transcription factor needed for hematopoiesis
B-ALL with abnormalities of 11q23 MLL is frequently seen in _____.
neonates and young infants
Name 5 risk factors for acute leukemia.
1. chemo (esp of DNA alkylating agents or topo inhibitors) 2. tobacco smoke 3. ionizing radiation 4. benzene exposure 5. genetic syndromes (Down, Bloom, Fanconi anemia, AT)
What do Auer rods indicate?
that the cell is a myeloblast
In ____, ALL has a remission rate of 60-80% and cure rates of less than 50%.
___ has a good prognosis in children; the complete remission rate is 95% and cure rates are about 80%.
In monocytic differentiation AML, the leukemic cells can express monocytic antigens ____ and ____.
____accounts for 10-20% of AML cases and has a very poor prognosis.
What unique antigens does a myeloblast express?
CD34, CD117 (C-kit), myeloperoxidase, CD33, CD13
t-AML 2a to alkylating agents or radation usually have a latency period of ___ and has a karyotype showing ____.
2-8 years; whole or partial loss of chromosome 5 and/or 7