Acute Leukemias Flashcards Preview

Lindsey's Blood and Lymph Unit III > Acute Leukemias > Flashcards

Flashcards in Acute Leukemias Deck (93)
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22

T-ALL accounts for ____% of ALL cases.

25-30

22

What does CBFB do?

encodes the beta subunit of core binding factor (CBF)

23

ALL has a good prognosis in _____; the complete remission rate is 95% and cure rates are about 80%.

children

23

AML with 11q23 MLL shows some degree of _____ and has a ____ prognosis.

monocytic differentiation; poor

24

What are the diagnostic criteria for AML?

increased myeloblasts accounting for >20% of nucleated cells

26

What are the symptoms of acute anemia?

fatigue, malaise, dyspnea, bruising, weight loss, bone or ab pain, neuro symptoms

26

Which gene encodes for the alpha unit of core binding factor (CBF), a transcription factor needed for hematopoiesis?

RUNX1

27

What are the 2 major categories of acute leukemia?

1. acute myeloid leukemia (AML) 2. acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

27

___ frequently presents with lymphoblastic lymphoma, often manifesting as a large mediastinal mass.

T-ALL

27

How are ALL and AML differentiated?

flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and/or morphology

28

ALL has a _____ in children; the complete remission rate is 95% and cure rates are about 80%.

good prognosis

30

T-ALL more frequently occurs in _____.

adolescents and young adults

31

Name 5 poor prognostic factors in ALL.

1. age 10 2. elevated WBC 3. slow response to therapy or residual disease after treatment 4. hypodiploidy (

33

Name the 3 translocations to know in B-ALL.

1. t(9;22) BCR-ABL1 2. 11q23 MLL 3. t(12;21) ETV6-RUNX1

34

AML with t(8;21) RUNX1-RUNX1T1 is found in about ____% of all cases and usually is seen in _____. It usually has a ____ prognosis.

5; younger; relatively good

36

What is Ph+ ALL?

the t(9;22) Philadelphia chromosome; 25% of adult B-ALL cases

37

____ with abnormalities of 11q23 MLL is frequently seen in neonates and young infants.

B-ALL

38

How can you ID a myeloblast in the microscope?

Auer rods

40

Acute leukemia is _____ without treatment.

fatal

41

B-ALL with t(12;21) ETV-6RUNX1 accounts for ___% of childhood cases and have a very favorable prognosis.

25

42

AML with inv(16) or t(16;16) CBFB-MYH11 is found in about ____% of all cases and usually is seen in _____. It usually has a ____ prognosis.

5-10; younger; relatively good

44

B-ALL accounts for ____% of all cases of ALL.

80-85

44

The presence of ____ are the most important prognostic finding for AML,NOS.

molecular findings

45

B-ALL with t(12;21) ETV-6RUNX1 accounts for 25% of childhood cases and have a ____ prognosis.

very favorable

46

How are chromosomal abnormalities detected?

cytogenetic analysis (karyotypic and FISH), molecular analysis (RT-PCR)

48

How is ALL diagnosed?

no set % of lymphoblasts req- WBC can be increased, decreased, or normal. Lymphoblasts have CD34 and TdT

49

_______ is a clonal, neoplastic proliferation of immature myeloid or lymphoid cells.

Acute leukemia

50

What is Bloom Syndrome?

auto. recessive disorder predisposing to cancer early in life; small stature, facial anomalies, immunodeficiency

51

APL with t(15;17) PML-RARA has increased _____ instead of blasts.

abnormal promyelocytes

52

What is Ataxia Telangiectasia?

neurogenerative disorder; abnormal eye movements, immune deficiency due to a defective chromosome 11