T-ALL accounts for ____% of ALL cases.
What does CBFB do?
encodes the beta subunit of core binding factor (CBF)
ALL has a good prognosis in _____; the complete remission rate is 95% and cure rates are about 80%.
AML with 11q23 MLL shows some degree of _____ and has a ____ prognosis.
monocytic differentiation; poor
What are the diagnostic criteria for AML?
increased myeloblasts accounting for >20% of nucleated cells
What are the symptoms of acute anemia?
fatigue, malaise, dyspnea, bruising, weight loss, bone or ab pain, neuro symptoms
Which gene encodes for the alpha unit of core binding factor (CBF), a transcription factor needed for hematopoiesis?
What are the 2 major categories of acute leukemia?
1. acute myeloid leukemia (AML) 2. acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)
___ frequently presents with lymphoblastic lymphoma, often manifesting as a large mediastinal mass.
How are ALL and AML differentiated?
flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and/or morphology
ALL has a _____ in children; the complete remission rate is 95% and cure rates are about 80%.
T-ALL more frequently occurs in _____.
adolescents and young adults
Name 5 poor prognostic factors in ALL.
1. age 10 2. elevated WBC 3. slow response to therapy or residual disease after treatment 4. hypodiploidy (
Name the 3 translocations to know in B-ALL.
1. t(9;22) BCR-ABL1 2. 11q23 MLL 3. t(12;21) ETV6-RUNX1
AML with t(8;21) RUNX1-RUNX1T1 is found in about ____% of all cases and usually is seen in _____. It usually has a ____ prognosis.
5; younger; relatively good
What is Ph+ ALL?
the t(9;22) Philadelphia chromosome; 25% of adult B-ALL cases
____ with abnormalities of 11q23 MLL is frequently seen in neonates and young infants.
How can you ID a myeloblast in the microscope?
Acute leukemia is _____ without treatment.
B-ALL with t(12;21) ETV-6RUNX1 accounts for ___% of childhood cases and have a very favorable prognosis.
AML with inv(16) or t(16;16) CBFB-MYH11 is found in about ____% of all cases and usually is seen in _____. It usually has a ____ prognosis.
5-10; younger; relatively good
B-ALL accounts for ____% of all cases of ALL.
The presence of ____ are the most important prognostic finding for AML,NOS.
B-ALL with t(12;21) ETV-6RUNX1 accounts for 25% of childhood cases and have a ____ prognosis.
How are chromosomal abnormalities detected?
cytogenetic analysis (karyotypic and FISH), molecular analysis (RT-PCR)
How is ALL diagnosed?
no set % of lymphoblasts req- WBC can be increased, decreased, or normal. Lymphoblasts have CD34 and TdT
_______ is a clonal, neoplastic proliferation of immature myeloid or lymphoid cells.
What is Bloom Syndrome?
auto. recessive disorder predisposing to cancer early in life; small stature, facial anomalies, immunodeficiency
APL with t(15;17) PML-RARA has increased _____ instead of blasts.
What is Ataxia Telangiectasia?
neurogenerative disorder; abnormal eye movements, immune deficiency due to a defective chromosome 11