The gene fusion in APL fuses the ______ to another, so differentiation is blocked.
retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RARA) gene
What is an Auer rod?
small, stick-like structures in the cytoplasm
What is the treatment for APL?
retinoic acid and arsenic salts
In megakaryoblastic differentiation AML, the leukemic cells may express megakaryocytic antigens ____ and ____.
AML with t(1;22) RBM15-MKL1 shows _____ and is most often seen in _____.
megakaryoblastic differentiation; infants with Down Syndrome
B-ALL with abnormalities of _____ is frequently seen in neonates and young infants.
In AML with inv(16) or t(16;16) CBFB-MYH11, there is usually a mixture of increased ____ and _____.
Chromosomal abnormalities are found in 95% of ____ and 90% of ______.
AML patients; ALL patients
______ are found in 95% of AML patients and 90% of ALL patients.
What does CEBPA indicate?
T-ALL frequently presents with lymphoblastic lymphoma, often manifesting as a ____.
large mediastinal mass
What is therapy related AML (t-AML)?
AML arising 2a to DNA damage from a prior therapy, like DNA alkylating agents, topo-II inhibitors, or ionizing radiation
Chemotherapy, especially with _____ and ____, is a risk factor for acute leukemia.
DNA alkylating agents; topoisomerase-II inhibitors
____ more frequently occurs in adolescents and young adults.
What are the 5 AML chromosome translocations?
1. t(8;21) RUNX1-RUNX1T1 2. inv(16) or t(16;16) CBFB-MYH11 3. t(15;17) PML-RARA APL 4. t(1;22) RBM15-MKL1 5. 11q23 MLL
What is Fanconi Anemia?
inherited aplastic anemia; auto recessive or x-linked;
What is the incidence of AML?
t-AML 2a to topoisomerase-II inhibitors usually has a latency period of ____ and has a karyotype showing _____.
1-2 years; rearrangement of the MLL gene
T-ALL frequently presents with _____, often manifesting as a large mediastinal mass.
In adults, ALL has a remission rate of ____ and cure rates of _____.
60-80%; less than 50%
What is the prognosis in t(1;22) RBM15-MKL1? Treatment?
relatively good; intensive chemo
___% of all cases of ALL occur in children under 6yo.
Some cases of APL give rise to ____, which the clinician should always be watching for.
What is the average age of AML diagnosis?
What are the signs of acute anemia?
anemia, pallor, thrombocytopenia, hemorrhage, ecchymoses, petechiae, fever, infection, adenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, medistinal mass
75% of all cases of ALL occur in _____.
children under 6yo
B-ALL with _____ accounts for 25% of childhood cases and have a very favorable prognosis.
In _____, the leukemic cells can express monocytic antigens CD64 and CD14.
monocytic differentiation AML
Acute leukemia is ____.
a clonal, neoplastic proliferation of immature myeloid or lymphoid cells
In ____, the leukemic cells may express megakaryocytic antigens CD41 and CD61.
megakaryoblastic differentiation AML