Acute Leukemias Flashcards Preview

Lindsey's Blood and Lymph Unit III > Acute Leukemias > Flashcards

Flashcards in Acute Leukemias Deck (93)
Loading flashcards...
1

The gene fusion in APL fuses the ______ to another, so differentiation is blocked.

retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RARA) gene

2

What is an Auer rod?

small, stick-like structures in the cytoplasm

2

What is the treatment for APL?

retinoic acid and arsenic salts

3

In megakaryoblastic differentiation AML, the leukemic cells may express megakaryocytic antigens ____ and ____.

CD41, CD61

3

AML with t(1;22) RBM15-MKL1 shows _____ and is most often seen in _____.

megakaryoblastic differentiation; infants with Down Syndrome

4

B-ALL with abnormalities of _____ is frequently seen in neonates and young infants.

11q23 MLL

4

In AML with inv(16) or t(16;16) CBFB-MYH11, there is usually a mixture of increased ____ and _____.

myeloblasts; monocytes

5

Chromosomal abnormalities are found in 95% of ____ and 90% of ______.

AML patients; ALL patients

6

______ are found in 95% of AML patients and 90% of ALL patients.

Chromosomal abnormalities

6

What does CEBPA indicate?

positive AML,NOS

7

T-ALL frequently presents with lymphoblastic lymphoma, often manifesting as a ____.

large mediastinal mass

8

What is therapy related AML (t-AML)?

AML arising 2a to DNA damage from a prior therapy, like DNA alkylating agents, topo-II inhibitors, or ionizing radiation

9

Chemotherapy, especially with _____ and ____, is a risk factor for acute leukemia.

DNA alkylating agents; topoisomerase-II inhibitors

10

____ more frequently occurs in adolescents and young adults.

T-ALL

11

What are the 5 AML chromosome translocations?

1. t(8;21) RUNX1-RUNX1T1 2. inv(16) or t(16;16) CBFB-MYH11 3. t(15;17) PML-RARA APL 4. t(1;22) RBM15-MKL1 5. 11q23 MLL

12

What is Fanconi Anemia?

inherited aplastic anemia; auto recessive or x-linked;

12

What is the incidence of AML?

3/100,000

13

t-AML 2a to topoisomerase-II inhibitors usually has a latency period of ____ and has a karyotype showing _____.

1-2 years; rearrangement of the MLL gene

14

T-ALL frequently presents with _____, often manifesting as a large mediastinal mass.

lymphoblastic lymphoma

15

In adults, ALL has a remission rate of ____ and cure rates of _____.

60-80%; less than 50%

15

What is the prognosis in t(1;22) RBM15-MKL1? Treatment?

relatively good; intensive chemo

17

___% of all cases of ALL occur in children under 6yo.

75

17

Some cases of APL give rise to ____, which the clinician should always be watching for.

DIC

18

What is the average age of AML diagnosis?

65yo

19

What are the signs of acute anemia?

anemia, pallor, thrombocytopenia, hemorrhage, ecchymoses, petechiae, fever, infection, adenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, medistinal mass

20

75% of all cases of ALL occur in _____.

children under 6yo

20

B-ALL with _____ accounts for 25% of childhood cases and have a very favorable prognosis.

t(12;21) ETV-6RUNX1

20

In _____, the leukemic cells can express monocytic antigens CD64 and CD14.

monocytic differentiation AML

21

Acute leukemia is ____.

a clonal, neoplastic proliferation of immature myeloid or lymphoid cells

21

In ____, the leukemic cells may express megakaryocytic antigens CD41 and CD61.

megakaryoblastic differentiation AML