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Flashcards in Acid-Base Deck (62)
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1

Relative excess of any acid except carbonic acid

Metabolic Acidosis

2

May be caused by:
Increase in acid
Excess removal or decrease in base
Combination of increase in acid and decrease in base

Metabolic Acidosis

3

Decreases the normal ratio of bicarbonate to carbonic acid because the bicarbonate is used up in buffering excess acid______

Metabolic acidosis

4

Caloric and glucose intake is insufficient
Body begins to use fat stores for energy
Fat metabolizes incompletely
This is __________, a type of ______

starvation ketoacidosis; metabolic acidosis

5

Ketoacids accumulate in blood, causing metabolic acidosis

starvation ketoacidosis

6

diabetes mellitus, starvation, alcoholism are just some symptoms of _____

ketoacidosis

7

Severe hyperthyroidism
Burns
Circulatory shock
due to ______

increase in acid

8

Tissue anoxia
Oliguric renal failure
due to ______

increase in acid

9

Anything that causes a removal/decrease in bicarbonate
due to ______

decrease/removal of base

10

Diarrhea: loss of intestinal fluid that is rich in bicarbonate ions that originate from pancreatic secretions
Gastrointestinal fistula that drains intestinal or pancreatic secretions; intestinal decompression
Renal tubular acidosis
have in common that __________

they include the excessive removal of/decrease in base

11

Headache
Abdominal pain
Central nervous system depression
symptoms of _______

metabolic acidosis

12

Confusion
Lethargy
Stupor
Coma
result from ________ system depression in _______

central nervous; metabolic acidosis

13

Tachycardia
Ventricular dysrhythmias (from myocardial intracellular acidity)
Decreased cardiac contractility
result from __________

severe metabolic acidosis

14

Death from brainstem dysfunction usually occurs if pH falls below 6.9 in _______

severe metabolic acidosis

15

In metabolic acidosis, uncompensated ABG symptoms include
_____bicarbonate concentration
pH _____
_____ Paco2

decreased; decreased; normal

16

Hyperventilation is typical respiratory compensatory response in ______

metabolic acidosis

17

Low blood pH stimulates peripheral chemoreceptors
Ventilatory neurons respond to increase rate and depth of respiration
are compensatory responses of _______

metabolic acidosis

18

Results in increased excretion by lungs of carbonic acid (CO2 + water)
a typical compensatory response of ________

metabolic acidosis

19

Does not remove metabolic acids from body
a compensatory response of ______

metabolic acidosis

20

Does change ratio of bicarbonate ions to carbonic acid
Results in compensatory increase in pH
compensatory response of ________

metabolic acidosis

21

In compensated metabolic acidosis, show:
_______ bicarbonate concentration (primary disorder)
______-PaCO2 (compensation)
______ or even normal pH, depending on the degree of compensation

decreased; decreased; decreased

22

Which of the following would be associated with metabolic acidosis?

Central nervous system depression
Increased serum bicarbonate level
Prolonged vomiting or gastric suctioning
pH greater than 7.40

Central nervous system depression

23

Any condition that causes an excess of carbonic acid

Respiratory Acidosis

24

Caused by impaired removal of carbonic acid by the lungs

Respiratory Acidosis

25

Impaired gas exchange
Inadequate neuromuscular function
Impairment of respiratory control in the brainstem

symptoms of impaired removal of ________ from lungs

carbonic acid

26

Decrease the normal 20:1 ratio of bicarbonate ion to carbonic acid

carbonic acid

27

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Pneumonia
Severe asthma

symptoms of _______-

respiratory acidosis

28

Pulmonary edema
Acute (adult) respiratory distress syndrome
symptoms of _________

respiratory acidosis

29

Guillain-Barré syndrome
Chest injury or surgery (pain limits breathing)
symptoms of ________-

respiratory acidosis

30

Hypokalemic respiratory muscle weakness
Severe kyphoscoliosis
Respiratory muscle fatigue
symptoms of ________

respiratory acidosis