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1

Which of the following will you consider as the MOST secure way of authentication?
A. Biometric
B. Password
C. Token
D. Ticket Granting

Answer: A
Explanation: Biometric authentication systems take advantage of an individual's unique physical characteristics in order to authenticate that person's identity. Various forms of biometric authentication include face, voice, eye, hand, signature, and fingerprint, each have their own advantages and disadvantages. When combined with the use of a PIN it can provide two factors authentication.

2

In biometric identification systems, at the beginning, it was soon apparent that truly positive identification could only be based on physical attributes of a person. This raised the necessicity of answering 2 questions:
A. what was the sex of a person and his age
B. what part of the body to be used and how to accomplish identification to be viable
C. what was the age of a person and his income level
D. what was the tone of the voice of a person and his habits

Answer: B
Explanation:

3

What is called the percentage of invalid subjects that are falsely accepted?
A. False Rejection Rate (FRR) or Type I Error
B. False Acceptance Rate (FAR) or Type II Error
C. Crossover Error Rate (CER)
D. True Acceptance Rate (TAR) or Type III error

Answer: B
Explanation:

4

Which of the following biometrics devices has the highs Crossover Error Rate (CER)?
A. Iris scan
B. Hang Geometry
C. Voice pattern
D. Fingerprints

Answer: C
Explanation:

5

Which of the following biometric parameters are better suited for authentication use over a long period of time?
A. Iris pattern
B. Voice pattern
C. Signature dynamics
D. Retina pattern

Answer: A
Explanation:

6

Which one of the following is the MOST critical characteristic of a biometrics system?
A. Acceptability
B. Accuracy
C. Throughput
D. Reliability

Answer: B
Explanation: We don't agree with the original answer, which was throughput. Granted throughput is vital but Krutz lists accuracy is most important.
In addition to the accuracy of the biometric systems, there are OTHER factors that must also be considered. These factors include the enrollment time, the throughput rate, and acceptability. Ronald Krutz The CISSP PREP Guide (gold edition) pg 51 v

7

Which of the following biometric devices has the lowest user acceptance level?
A. Voice recognition
B. Fingerprint scan
C. Hand geometry
D. Signature recognition

Answer: B
Explanation:

8

Biometric performance is most commonly measured in terms of:
A. FRR and FAR
B. FAC and ERR
C. IER and FAR
D. FRR and GIC

Answer: A
Explanation: Biometric performance is most commonly measured in two ways: False Rejection Rate (FRR), and False Acceptance Rate (FAR). The FRR is the probability that you are not authenticated to access your account. A strict definition states that the FRR is the probability that a mated comparison (i.e. 2 biometric samples of the same finger) incorrectly determines that there is no match.

9

What is the most critical characteristic of a biometric identifying system?
A. Perceived intrusiveness
B. Storage requirements
C. Accuracy
D. Reliability

Answer: C
Explanation

10

Which of the following biometric characteristics cannot be used to uniquely authenticate an individual's identity?
A. Retina scans
B. Iris scans
C. Palm scans
D. Skin scans

Answer: D
Explanation: Biometrics: Fingerprints Palm Scan Hand Geometry Retina Scan Iris Scan Signature Dynamics Keyboard Dynamic Voice Print Facial Scan Hand Topology
Pg. 128-130 Shon Harris All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide

11

In biometric identification systems, at the beginning, it was soon apparent that truly positive identification could only be based on physical attributes of a person. This raised the necessicity of answering 2 questions:
A. What was the sex of a person and his age
B. what part of body to be used and how to accomplish identification to be viable
C. what was the age of a person and his income level
D. what was the tone of the voice of a person and his habits

Answer: B
Explanation:

12

You are comparing biometric systems. Security is the top priority. A low ________ is most important in this regard.
A. FAR
B. FRR
C. MTBF
D. ERR

Answer: A
Explanation: When comparing biometric systems, a low false acceptance rate is most important when security is the priority. Whereas, a low false rejection rate is most important when convenience is the priority. All biometric implementations balance these two criteria. Some systems use very high FAR's such as 1 in 300. This means that the likelihood that the system will accept someone other than the enrolled user is 1 in 300. However, the likelihood that the system will reject the enrolled user (its FRR) is very low, giving them ease of use, but with low security. Most fingerprint systems should be able to run with FARs of 1 in 10,000 or better.

13

Almost all types of detection permit a system's sensitivity to be increased or decreased during an inspection process. To have a valid measure of the system performance:
A. The CER is used.
B. the FRR is used
C. the FAR is used
D. none of the above choices is correct

Answer: A
Explanation: “When a biometric system reject an authorized individual, it is called a Type 1 error. When the system accepts impostors who should be rejected, it is called a Type II error. The goal is to obtain low numbers for each type of error. When comparing different biometric systems, many different variables are used, but one of the most important variables is the crossover error rate (CER). This rating is stated in a percentage and represents the point at which the false rejection rate equals the false acceptance rate. This rating is the most important measurement when determining the system’s accuracy.” Pg 113 Shon Harris: All-in-One CISSP Certification

14

The quality of finger prints is crucial to maintain the necessary:
A. FRR
B. ERR and FAR
C. FAR
D. FRR and FAR

Answer: D
Explanation: Another factor that must be taken into account when determining the necessary FAR and FRR for your organization is the actual quality of the fingerprints in your user population. ABC's experience with several thousand users, and the experience of its customers, indicates that a percentage of the populations do not have fingerprints of sufficient quality to allow for authentication of the individual. Approximately 2.5% of employees fall into this group in the general office worker population. For these users, a smart card token with password authentication is recommended.

15

By requiring the user to use more than one finger to authenticate, you can:
A. Provide statistical improvements in EAR.
B. Provide statistical improvements in MTBF.
C. Provide statistical improvements in FRR.
D. Provide statistical improvements in ERR.

Answer: C
Explanation: Statistical improvements in false rejection rates can also be achieved by requiring the user to use more than one finger to authenticate. Such techniques are referred to as flexible verification.

16

Which of the following is being considered as the most reliable kind of personal identification?
A. Token
B. Finger print
C. Password
D. Ticket Granting

Answer: B
Explanation: Every person's fingerprint is unique and is a feature that stays with the person throughout his/her life. This makes the fingerprint the most reliable kind of personal identification because it cannot be forgotten, misplaced, or stolen. Fingerprint authorization is potentially the most affordable and convenient method of verifying a person's identity.

17

Which of the following methods is more microscopic and will analyze the direction of the ridges of the fingerprints for matching?
A. None of the choices.
B. Flow direct
C. Ridge matching
D. Minutia matching

Answer: D
Explanation: There are two approaches for capturing the fingerprint image for matching: minutia matching and global pattern matching. Minutia matching is a more microscopic approach that analyzes the features of the fingerprint, such as the location and direction of the ridges, for matching. The only problem with this approach is that it is difficult to extract the minutiae points accurately if the fingerprint is in some way distorted. The more macroscopic approach is global pattern matching where the flow of the ridges is compared at all locations between a pair of fingerprint images; however, this can be affected by the direction that the image is rotated.

18

Which of the following are the types of eye scan in use today?
A. Retinal scans and body scans.
B. Retinal scans and iris scans.
C. Retinal scans and reflective scans.
D. Reflective scans and iris scans.

Answer: B
Explanation: There are two types of eye scan in use today for authentication purposes: retinal scans and iris scans. Retinal Scan technology maps the capillary pattern of the retina, a thin (1/50th inch) nerve on the back of the eye. To enroll, a minimum of five scans is required, which takes 45 seconds. The subject must keep his head and eye motionless within 1/2" of the device, focusing on a small rotating point of green light. 320 - 400 points of reference are captured and stored in a 35-byte field, ensuring the measure is accurate with a negligible false rejection rate. This compares to 30-70 points of reference for a finger scan. Unfortunately a retinal scan is considerably more intrusive than an iris scans and many people are hesitant to use the device [Retina-scan]. In addition a significant number of people may be unable to perform a successful enrolment, and there exist degenerative diseases of the retina that alter the scan results over time. Despite these disadvantages, there are several successful implementations of this technology [Retina-scan].

19

Which of the following eye scan methods is considered to be more intrusive?
A. Iris scans
B. Retinal scans
C. Body scans
D. Reflective scans

Answer: B
Explanation: There are two types of eye scan in use today for authentication purposes: retinal scans and iris scans. Retinal Scan technology maps the capillary pattern of the retina, a thin (1/50th inch) nerve on the back of the eye. To enroll, a minimum of five scans is required, which takes 45 seconds. The subject must keep his head and eye motionless within 1/2" of the device, focusing on a small rotating point of green light. 320 - 400 points of reference are captured and stored in a 35-byte field, ensuring the measure is accurate with a negligible false rejection rate. This compares to 30-70 points of reference for a finger scan. Unfortunately a retinal scan is considerably more intrusive than an iris scans and many people are hesitant to use the device [Retina-scan]. In addition a significant number of people may be unable to perform a successful enrollment, and there exist degenerative diseases of the retina that alter the scan results over time. Despite these disadvantages, there are several successful implementations of this technology [Retina-scan].

20

Which of the following offers greater accuracy then the others?
A. Facial recognition
B. Iris scanning
C. Finger scanning
D. Voice recognition

Answer: B
Explanation: Iris scanning offers greater accuracy than finger scanning, voice or facial recognition, hand geometry or keystroke analysis. It is safer and less invasive than retinal scanning, an important legal consideration [Nuger]. Any company thinking of using biometrics would do well to ensure that they comply with existing privacy laws.

21

In addition to the accuracy of the biometric systems, there are other factors that must also be considered:

A. These factors include the enrollment time and the throughput rate, but not acceptability.
B. These factors do not include the enrollment time, the throughput rate, and acceptability.
C. These factors include the enrollment time, the throughput rate, and acceptability.
D. These factors include the enrollment time, but not the throughput rate, neither the acceptability.

Answer: C
Explanation: In addition to the accuracy of the biometric systems, there are OTHER factors that must also be considered. These factors include the enrollment time, the throughput rate, and acceptability. -Ronald Krutz The CISSP PREP Guide (gold edition) pg 51

22

What physical characteristics does a retinal scan biometric device measure?
A. The amount of light reaching the retina
B. The amount of light reflected by the retina
C. The size, curvature, and shape of the retina
D. The pattern of blood vessels at the back of the eye

Answer: D
Explanation:

23

Type II errors occur when which of the following biometric system rates is high?
A. False accept rate
B. False reject rate
C. Crossover error rate
D. Speed and throughput rate

Answer: A
Explanation: There are three main performance issues in biometrics. These measures are as follows:
False Rejection Rate (FRR) or Type 1 Error. The percentage of valid subjects that are falsely rejected.
False Acceptance Rate (FAR) or Type 2 Error. The percentage of invalid subjects that are falsely accepted.
Crossover Error Rate (CER). The percent in which the False Rejection Rate equals the False Acceptance Rate
pg 38 Krutz: The CISSP Prep Guide .

24

Which of the following are the valid categories of hand geometry scanning?
A. Electrical and image-edge detection.
B. Mechanical and image-edge detection.
C. Logical and image-edge detection.
D. Mechanical and image-ridge detection.

Answer: B
Explanation: Hand geometry reading (scanning) devices usually fall into one of two categories: mechanical or image-edge detection. Both methods are used to measure specific characteristics of a person's hand such as length of fingers and thumb, widths, and depth.

25

In the world of keystroke dynamics, what represents the amount of time you hold down in a particular key?
A. Dwell time
B. Flight time
C. Dynamic time
D. Systems time

Answer: A
Explanation: Keystroke dynamics looks at the way a person types at a keyboard. Specifically, keyboard dynamics measures two distinct variables: "dwell time" which is the amount of time you hold down a particular key and "flight time" which is the amount of time it takes a person to switch between keys. Keyboard dynamics systems can measure one's keyboard input up to 1000 times per second.

26

In the world of keystroke dynamics, what represents the amount of time it takes a person to switch between keys?
A. Dynamic time
B. Flight time
C. Dwell time
D. Systems time.

Answer: B
Explanation: Keystroke dynamics looks at the way a person types at a keyboard. Specifically, keyboard dynamics measures two distinct variables: "dwell time" which is the amount of time you hold down a particular key and "flight time" which is the amount of time it takes a person to switch between keys. Keyboard dynamics systems can measure one's keyboard input up to 1000 times per second.

27

Which of the following are the benefits of Keystroke dynamics?
A. Low cost
B. Unintrusive device
C. Transparent
D. All of the choices.

Answer: D
Explanation: Keystroke dynamics is behavioral in nature. It works well with users that can "touch type". Key advantages in applying keyboard dynamics are that the device used in this system, the keyboard, is unintrusive and does not detract from one's work. Enrollment as well as identification goes undetected by the user. Another inherent benefit to using keystroke dynamics as an identification device is that the hardware (i.e. keyboard) is inexpensive. Currently, plug-in boards, built-in hardware and firmware, or software can represent keystroke dynamics systems.

28

DSV as an identification method check against users:
A. Fingerprints
B. Signature
C. Keystrokes
D. Facial expression

Answer: B
Explanation: Signature identification, also known as Dynamic Signature Verification (DSV), is another natural fit in the world of biometrics since identification through one's signature occurs during many everyday transactions. Any process or transaction that requires an individual's signature is a prime contender for signature identification.

29

Signature identification systems analyze what areas of an individual’s signature?
A. All of the choices EXCEPT the signing rate.
B. The specific features of the signature.
C. The specific features of the process of signing one’s signature.
D. The signature rate.

Answer: A
Explanation: Signature identification systems analyze two different areas of an individual's signature: the specific features of the signature and specific features of the process of signing one's signature. Features that are taken into account and measured include speed, pen pressure, directions, stroke length, and the points in time when the pen is lifted from the paper.

30

What are the advantages to using voice identification?
A. All of the choices.
B. Timesaving
C. Reliability
D. Flexibility

Answer: A
Explanation: The many advantages to using voice identification include: Considered a "natural" biometric technology Provides eyes and hands-free operation Reliability Flexibility Timesaving data input Eliminate spelling errors Improved data accuracy