Flashcards in Abnormal Psych Glossary Deck (73)
chronically depressed mood that is present most of the time for at least 3 years adults 1 year / child or adolescent.
Enuresis (not due to medical condition)
Elimination disorder characterized by repeated bed / clothes wetting that is usually involuntary. Primary treatment is the bell-and-pad (night alarm).
Expressed emotion and Schizophrenia
High levels of expressed emotions by family members are associated with high risk for relapse/hospitalization
Global Assessment of Functioning GAF
used to rank individuals psychological, social and occupational functioning. 2 factors considered when scoring; Sx severity and level of functioning.
Learned Helplessness Model
depression is due to exposure to uncontrollable negative events and internal, stable and global attributions of those events.
Substantial discrepancy between IQ and achievement test performance (usually 2 standard deviations or more) and it is not explained by a sensory deficit. Most common co-Dx is ADHD
1 or more major depressive episodes without a Hx of manic, hypomanic, or mixed episodes. Requires the presence of characteristic Sxs (depressed mood, loss of enjoyment or interest in customary activities) for at least 2 weeks. In adults; twice as common in females than males. Linked to several neurotransmitter abnormalities including low norepinephrine and serotonin. Tx w/ antidepressant and/or CBT.
an intentional production or feigning of physical or psychological Sxs for purpose of obtaining an external reward such as avoiding work, financial compensation, obtaining drugs.
Male Erectile D/O
inability to maintain an adequate erection. Physical factors linked to ED include; diabetes mellitus, liver and kidney disease, MS, and antipsychotic, antidepressant and hypertensive drugs.
Relapse Prevention Therapy
Marlatt and Gordon
addiction as an "over-learned maladaptive habit pattern" and focus on relapse prevention. Involves teaching strategies for dealing with high-risk situations (environmental cues that elicit strong negative emotions).
Predictors of successful smoking cessation include male gender, older age at initiation of smoking and low nicotine dependence. Interventions most effective when: 1)nicotine replacement 2) multi-component behavior therapy 3) support and assistance from clinician.
Sxs occur after abrupt cessation or reduction; last several weeks and include depressed mood, irritability, anxiety, restlessness, and impaired concentration, decreased heart rate and increased appetite.
NIMH Study on Depression
All 3 treatments were effective. at 18 months only 30% of CBT group still Sx free, 26% IPt and 19% imipramine group, 20% of the placebo group.
In adults D/O is about equal in men and women. Children its more prevalent in males. Common treatemtn is in vivo exposure with tricyclic clomipramine or an SSRI.
persistent preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism and mental and interpersonal control.
resemble moderate to severe case of the flu.
2 or more unexpected panic attacks (usually peak within 10 minutes). Sxs may mimmic heart attack or hyperthyroidism. Tx usually involves in vivo exposure with response prevention and in some cases TCA or SSRIs
due to a recessive gene; without treatment can cause mental retardation. Retardation can be prevented by diet low in phenylalanine.
Schizophrenia: Positive and Negative
Positive Symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior.
Negative: affective flattening, alogia & avolition.
Periods of time with little or no drive, little movement and sometimes just sitting still. Commonly seen in schizophrenic patients.
when onset of Sxs is within 4 weeks postpartum (for MDD, BiPolar, Brief Psychotic D/O). 10-20% of women experience Sxs sufficiently severe to meet criteria forMDD, and up to 70% exp milder Sxs - "Baby Blues"
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
manifesting characteristic Sxs after life-threatening ordeal. Intense fear, helplessness, or horror; followed by persistent re-experiencing of the trauma; persistent avoidance of stimuli connected to trauma; persistent Sxs of increased arousal. Most effective treatment is a comprehensive CBT.
Dx when orgasm and ejaculation occur with minimal sexual stimulation, before, on or shortly after penetration and before the person desires it. Linked to low serotonin levels and may be effectively treated with an SSRI.
Prognosis for Schizophrenia
Better prognosis associated with good premorbid adjustment, an acute and late onset, the presence of a precipitating event, female gender, a brief-duration of active phase Sxs, insight into the illness, a family Hx of mood D/O, and no family Hx of schizophrenia.
MDD that involves prominent cognitive Sxs and may be mistaken for dementia. However; onset usually abrupt, person is usually concerned and uncooperative in testing. Usually have impaired recall but intact recognition memory and greater impairment of procedural (vs declarative) memories.
Rates of MDD
Prior to puberty rates are pretty equal between males and females. Starting in adolescence, females 2:1 males. Lifetime risk ranges from 10-25% for females; 5-12% for males.
Reactive Attachement Disorder
Early childhood d/o involving developmentally inappropriate social relatedness caused by pathogenic care. Inhibitive & Disinhibitive
Schizoid Personality D/O
pervasive pattern of indifference to personal relationships and a restricted range of emotional expression in social situations.
6 month minimum duration; at least 1 mos of active phase Sxs (delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior). 5 types: 1) Paranoid 2) Disorganized 3) Catatonic 4) Undifferentiated 5) Residual; Tx includes neuroleptic (antipsychotic) drug, family Therapy and skills training. Possible causes: structural brain abnormalities (enlarged ventricles) and abnormalities in neurotransmitters (elevated dopamine, norepinephrine, and or serotonin). Prevalence slightly higher for males. Onset 18-25 for males; 25-35 for females.