Flashcards in Abnormal Psych Glossary Deck (73)
Acute Stress Disorder
Similar to PTSD but; must have onset within 4 weeks and last for 2 days and not longer than 4 weeks. 3 or more dissociative Sxs (sense of numbing/emotional detachment , derealization, dissociative amnesia) in addition to persistent re-experiencing of the trauma, marked avoidance of stimulus causing recollections and marked anxiety or increased arousal.
disruptive behavior disorder involving persistent, developmentally-inappropriate inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. In children ADHD is 4-9x more likely in boys. Linked to smaller-than-normal caudate nucleus, globus pallidus and prefrontal cortex. Tx usually involves CNS stimulant (methylphenidate), CBT and family intervention.
ADHD in Adults
60% continue to have Sxs into adulthood. Inattention predominates Sxs including inability to concentrate, difficulty establishing / maintaining routines, and an inability to prioritize and complete important tasks.
anxiety about being in situations or places from which escape may be difficult or embarrassing or help will not be available. It can occur without panic attacks. Tx of choice is in vivo exposure with response prevention (flooding).
withdrawal involves autonomic hyperactivity, hand tremors, insomnia, nausea, vomiting, anxiety, transient illusions or hallucinations and or grand mal seizures following prolonged use. Alcohol-induced Persistent Amnestic D/O > retrograde amnesia and confabulation from thiamine deficiency.
Amnestic D/O due to general medical condition
requires inability to acquire and recall new information )anterograde amnesia) but may also include some impairment in ability to recall previously acquired information (retrograde amnesia). Due to known medical condition.
refusal to maintain minimally normal body weight, an intense fear of gaining weight, significant disturbance in perception of shape or size of one's body, and amenorrhea in women. 2 types: Restricting / Binge purge type. Onset usually in mid-late teens and is often associated with stressful life event.
pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others. Must be 18, Hx of conduct D/O before 15. Is chronic but symptoms can become less evident and pervasive in 4th decade of life.
Avoidant Personality D/O
A pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following:
Hospitalized children with physical disabilities are at greater risk for for emotional and behavioral problems. Chronic medical conditions associated with higher rates of school related problems. Compliance with medical regimens is particularly difficult for adolescents.
Behavioral Theory of Depression
attributes depression to a low rate of response-contingent reinforcement
Bipolar I and II
I is characterized by 1 or more manic episodes with or without occurrence of a MD Episode. II is characterized by 1 or more MD episodes plus 1 or more hypomanic episodes. Genetic factors most consistently linked to Bipolar disorders. Prevalence rates for BPI USA 12 months is .6%
Borderline Personality D/O
pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, affect, and marked impulsivity. most commonly Dx in individuals 19-34; Sxs typically chronic and severe during young adulthood.
Brief Psychotic Disorder
delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and grossly disorganized behavior that has a duration between 1 day to a month.
involves:1) recurrent episodes of binge eating that are accompanied by sense of lack of control 2) inappropriate compensatory behavior to prevent weight gain (vomiting, laxatives, excessive exercise) 3) self-evaluation unduly influenced by body shape/weight. Onset late adolescence, occurs after period of dieting. Tx nutritional Cx, CBT, Family and sometines antidepressants.
Concordance rates for Schizophrenia
Higher for those with genetic similarity; the greater the similarity the higher the risk. Biological siblings 10%, identical twins 48%.
Primary and Secondary Gain
Sxs suggest serious neurological or other medical condition (paralysis, blindness, loss of pain sensation) but for which no medical explanation is available. Primary gain > keeping inner conflict out of consciousness. Secondary gain > avoiding an unpleasant activity or obtaining support. Sxs not voluntarily produced usually alleviated under hypnosis or amytal interview (truth serum).
fluctuating hypomanic symptoms and numerous depressive symptoms for the period of at least 2 years in adults / 1 year in children or adolescents.
disturbance in consciousness accompanied by either change in cognition and or perceptual abnormalities. Can be caused by general medical condition or substance use; Sxs usually develop rapidly and fluctuate over time. Tx targets underlying cause.
1 or more bizarre delusions that last for at least 1 month and do not substantially impact functioning. Erotomanic: belief that someone is in love with the individual. Unspecified: delusions do not clearly fit specific type.
involves some degree of memory impairment and 1 other cognitive impairment (aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, disturbance in the executive functioning). Can be caused by medical condition or substance use. Onset usually insidious and the course progressive.
gradual onset of Sxs; slow progressive decline in cognitive functioning. Early Sxs include anterograde memories (esp for declarative memories), impaired visuospatial skills, and indifference / irritability / sadness. Memory impairments have been linked of low levels of ACh (Acetylcholine).
Dementia due to HIV / AIDS
Early Sxs include forgetfulness, impaired attention and psychomotor slowing. Involves 6 stages.
Depressive Cognitive Triad
Cognitive profile for depression includes a triad: negative beliefs about one's self, the world (situation) and the future.
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT)
was designed to Tx Borderline Personality D/O. 3 strategies: 1) group skills training to regulate emotions and improve social and coping skills 2) Individual outpatient Tx to strengthen motivation and new skills 3) telephone consultations for between sessions coaching. Reduces early termination, psychiatric hospitalizations and parasuicidal behaviors.
involves 1 or more episodes of an inability to recall important personal information that cannot be attributed to normal forgetfulness. Usually associated with traumatic event. Most common types are localized and selective.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
excessive anxiety and worry about multiple events or activities for at least 6 months. The most effective treatment is comprehensive CBT. GAD must be distiguished from non-pathology anxiety which involves a greater sense of control over Sxs; related to fewer events; and fewer physical Sxs.
attributes schizophrenia to elevated levels of, or oversensitivity to dopamine.
cause od 10-30% of all cases of moderate to severe mental retardation. Associated with physical abnormalities including slanted, almond shaped eyes, heart lesions, cataracts and repository defects.