abnormal growth and tumour classification Flashcards Preview

EMS MOD > abnormal growth and tumour classification > Flashcards

Flashcards in abnormal growth and tumour classification Deck (21)
Loading flashcards...
1

what is hypertrophy?

an increase in the size of cells causing an increase in the size or weight of a tissue

2

what is a natural example of hypertrophy?

pregnancy and fat cells as we get older - functional demand or stimulation of hormones or growth factors

3

what is cell adaption caused by?

stress and is a reversible response to environmental changes

4

what do a)epithelial changes and b)connective tissues changes result in?

carcinoma for epithelial and sarcoma for connective tissue

5

what are the most common cancers in the UK?

breast, prostate, lung, bowel

6

what is the highest mortality for cancers in the UK?

lung, bowel, breast, prostate

7

what can adapt well?

labile cells, stable cells, fibroblasts and epithelial cells

8

what cannot adapt?

neurones

9

what is the name for an increase in the number of cells?

hyperplasia

10

what is a physiological hyperplasia?

puberty and compensation in the liver when part is resected it will grow back

11

what is pathological hyperplasia?

benign prostatic hyperplasia

12

what does hyperplasia result from?

increased GFs - increased receptor - increased activation of signalling pathways - more transcription factors - proliferation

13

what is the transformation of one mature cell type to another?

metaplasia

14

what are the four main routes of metastasis?

blood, lymph, across a body cavity and canalicular

15

what is a predominant feature of malignancy?

invasion

16

what metaplasia occurs in the RTs?

columnar to squamous

17

what is atrophy?

wasting of the tissues

18

what are the three types of atrophy?

compensatory - protein degradation
physiological - embryogenesis
pathological - senile

19

what is dysplasia?

disordered growth

20

what can lead to dysplasia?

metaplasia

21

what is a characteristic of metaplasia?

the cell will keep it's original form