Flashcards in abnormal growth and tumour classification Deck (21)
what is hypertrophy?
an increase in the size of cells causing an increase in the size or weight of a tissue
what is a natural example of hypertrophy?
pregnancy and fat cells as we get older - functional demand or stimulation of hormones or growth factors
what is cell adaption caused by?
stress and is a reversible response to environmental changes
what do a)epithelial changes and b)connective tissues changes result in?
carcinoma for epithelial and sarcoma for connective tissue
what are the most common cancers in the UK?
breast, prostate, lung, bowel
what is the highest mortality for cancers in the UK?
lung, bowel, breast, prostate
what can adapt well?
labile cells, stable cells, fibroblasts and epithelial cells
what cannot adapt?
what is the name for an increase in the number of cells?
what is a physiological hyperplasia?
puberty and compensation in the liver when part is resected it will grow back
what is pathological hyperplasia?
benign prostatic hyperplasia
what does hyperplasia result from?
increased GFs - increased receptor - increased activation of signalling pathways - more transcription factors - proliferation
what is the transformation of one mature cell type to another?
what are the four main routes of metastasis?
blood, lymph, across a body cavity and canalicular
what is a predominant feature of malignancy?
what metaplasia occurs in the RTs?
columnar to squamous
what is atrophy?
wasting of the tissues
what are the three types of atrophy?
compensatory - protein degradation
physiological - embryogenesis
pathological - senile
what is dysplasia?
what can lead to dysplasia?