A&P Unit 3 (Skeletal System) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A&P Unit 3 (Skeletal System) Deck (39)
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1

functions of the skeletal system (6)

-support/framework
-protection
-leverage for movement
-mineral homeostasis
-blood cell production
-energy storage

2

long bones

-greater length than width
-femur, humerus

3

short bones

-nearly equal in length and width
-carpals, tarsals

4

flat bones

-thin with large surfaces
-protection
-scapulae, sternum

5

irregular bones

-do not fall into any category
-vertebrae

6

sesamoid bone

-embedded with muscle tendons around joints
-patellae

7

cortical bone (3)

-dense/compact
-very strong
-made of osteon/haversian systems

8

cancellous bone (spongy bone)

-constructed of thin bone tissue called trabeculae

9

epiphysis

-distal and proximal ends of bones

10

diaphysis

-long, main, portion of the bone

11

metaphysis (4)

-region where diaphysis meets epiphysis
-zone of change/transition
-contains epiphyseal line
-site of interstatial (lengthwise) growth

12

articular cartilage

-reduces friction and absorbs shock

13

periosteum

-double-layered fibrous membrane
-site of appositional (width) growth

14

trochanter

-specific to femur, large rough projection
-greater lesser trochanters of femur

15

tubercle

-small rounded projection
-greater lesser tubercles of humerus

16

foramen

-rounded opening through which blood, vessels, nerves, ligaments

17

osteoblasts

-immature bone cell
-builds bone

18

osteoclasts

-specialized cells for reabsorption
-bone destroyers

19

ossification

-process by which bone is formed
-2 patterns: endochondral/intramembraneous

20

endochondral ossification

-formation of bone from hyaline cartilage
-bad blood supply results in cartilage before bone

21

intramembraneous ossification

-good blood supply results in direct formation of bone tissue

22

4 steps process callus formation/bone healing

-fracture
-fibrocartilaginous callus formation
-bony callus formation
-remodeling

23

5 steps process callus formation/bone healing

-fracture
-fibrocartilaginous callus formation
--OSTEBO BLAST INVASION
-bony callus formation
-remodeling

24

3 types of cartilage

-hyaline (abundant/weak/articulating bones)
-fibro
-elastic

25

structural classification of joints (2)

-fibrous (no synovial cavity)
-synovial (diathrotic, synovial cavity, movement)

26

functional classification of joints (3)

-synarthrotic (immovable, sutures)
-amphiarthrotic (movable, intervertebral disk)
-diarthrotic (freely movable, elbows)

27

bursae (2)

-reduce friction for structures moving over boney prominences
-filled with fluid

28

menisci (2)

-fibrocartilage between articulating surfaces
-shock absorber

29

3 parts of sternum

-manubrium
-gladiolus
-xiphoid process

30

classification of ribs (4)

-12 pairs
-7 true
-3 false
-2 false floating