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Flashcards in 9.2 theroies of intelligence Deck (27)
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1

charles spearman

intelligence should be though of as a single trait
-factor analysis

2

factor analysis

uses correlations among many items to sort related variables into clusters called factors

3

General intelligence factor (g)

the blue ovals represents children's performance on different academic subjects that are correlated to justify thinking that one factor called g, underlies them all

4

things that are correlated with (G)

-the general intelligence factor (G) as measured by IQ tests, has a .50 correlation with high school and university grades
also positively correlated with:
-lifetime earnings
-Number of years of education
-lifespan
-perceptual judgment speed
-capacity for impulse control
-success in finding a job

5

things that are correlated with g

performance on IQ tests provide the BEST PREDICTOR OF ALL for an individuals workplace productivity after they are hired into a job

6

low g scores are correlated with

getting divorce
living in poverty
being incarcerated for a crime

7

problem with the correlations is that

we dont know the cause or relationship
-motivation to achieve leads to positive outcomes

8

g is not perfectly correlated with different academic skills

diff ppl have diff strength and weaknesses
doesn't measure all the ways a person can capture intelligence

9

s

the part of children's performance on diff academic subjects that dont correlate with one another spearman called s
-theres are the individuals subject-specific levels of intelligence

10

Louis Thurstone

seven primary mental ability underlying g
-g is made up of 7 clusters that are correlated with one another rather that independent of one another
-they are both distinct and related to one another
word fluency
reasoning
memory
verbal comprehension
numeric abilities
spatial visualization
perceptual speed

11

hierarchical model of intelligence

-the top is g
-the middles has 7 primary mental abilities
-the bottom has subject-specific intelligence
*based on more specific mental abilities

12

g can also be thought of as a combo of:

fluid intelligence (Gf)
crystallized intelligence (Gc)
-a persons fluid intelligence can affect their crystallized intelligence
fluid intelligence declines as a we age but crystallized stays with us

13

fluid intelligence (Gf)

the ease by which we can learn new info and find solutions to unfamiliar problems

14

crystallized intelligence (Gc)

our ability to use our past experience and knowledge we have already acquired to complete tasks

15

Robert Sternberg

tried to capture forms of intelligence that was different than the ones that promotes success in academic settings

16

sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence

analytical (book smarts)
practical (street smarts)
creative (creativity)
*ppl are confused about the creativity

17

analytic intelligence

the academic g type of intelligence that most intelligence tests measure

18

practical intelligence

flexible problem solving in the real world beyond the classroom

19

creative intelligence

the ability to solve completely new problems and to generate unique ideas

20

Howard gardner

noticed (savants) ppl who are extraordinary in certain areas but lack skill in other domains (like social interactions)

21

savants (like kim peek)

challenge the notion of intelligence as a general ability
-although he has great difficulty with basic life functions and his IQ scores are well below average he has read and can remember all of the contents of 12,000 books
-it takes him three seconds to simultaneously read two pages of a book, one pages for each of his eyes
-he has thorough knowledge of 15 subject areas and he perfectly remembers every piece of music he has ever heard

22

gardner's theory of multiple intelligences

8 unique and independent types of intelligences
-verbal/ linguistic
-logical/mathematical
-musical/rythmic
-bodily/kinesthetic
-intrapersonal
-interpersonal
-visualspatial
-existentialist

23

learning styles

the idea that children differ in their intellectual strengths and weakness
-the idea is that matching instruction to children's learning styles should improve their performance in school

24

gender differences in intelligence ?

on average, overall scores on IQ tests are statistically equivalent for males and females however there is more variability in males scares that females
-girls performance in math improves over time because improvements in girls access to math education
-our cultures increasing expectation that girls potential in math is the same as males potential
-our culture placing increasing value on girls achievement in math

25

gender diff in intelligence con't

-females score higher on average on verbal measures of intelligence, some tests of memory and on measures of the ability to read others emotions
-males score higher, on average on tests of visuospatial abilities

26

discrimination and false negative stereotypes, including the effect of stereotype threat...

provide far more likely explanations for the low proportion of women who pursue careers in math, natural/computer science and engineering
false negative stereotypes discourage women

27

is intelligence just one thing?

no

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