Flashcards in 9: Gender and Sexual Behaviour Deck (34)
What is a person's sex?
How they hormonally and genitally present, both internally and externally
What is a person's gender?
Their social role and identity based on socially constructed norms, roles and relationships
What is transgender?
When a person's gender identity does not match the sex they were assigned at birth
What does intersex mean?
When a person presents as both male and female physically
Chromasomes can be XX or XY
What is XX intersex?
Where they have the chromasomes of a woman but the external genitals of a male. Caused by excess male hormones before birth
What is XY intersex?
Chromasomes of a man but the external genitals are incomplete or more femanine. Often malformed or absent testes and problems forming and using testoesterone
What is the Y chromasome?
The chromasome that dictates male development and makes someone present as male. Without this, we would all be female
What is the sex determining region?
An area found on the Y chromosome which activates the genes needed o develop the gonads and make testes
How can colourblindness be sex linked?
Red-green colourblindness is found on the X chromasome so the defect is more likely to affect men who do not have a back up X chromasome to replease the faulty gene
What is Turner's syndrome?
People have a missing or altered second X chromasome meaning their overies don't work propperly and they have reduced levels of progesterone
What are the physical symptoms of Turner's syndrome?
Short, wide neck
What is Klinefelter's syndrome?
Additional X chromasome (XXY) meaning people don#t make enough testoesterone or sperm. These issues can be helped using hormone therapy
At which point does sex become differentiated in the foetus?
After 2 months
After 2 months, what happens if the foetus has a Y chromasome?
The Wolffian duct develops into the male internal reproductive organs
After 2 months, what happens if the foetus has no Y chromasome?
The Mullerian duct develops into the female reproductive system
What is the role of the hypothalamus in hormones?
It releases gonadotropin hormones (GnRH) such as LH and FSH which is regulated by the pituitary gland
What is the role of the pituitary gland in GnRH?
It reglulates their release from the hypothalamus
What do GnRH hormones do in females?
Stimulate the production of estrogen
What does LH do in men?
Encourages testoesterone production
What does FSH do in men?
Matures sperm cells
How is GnRH affected by melatonin and how is this linked to evolution?
Lower melatonin (More light) increases GnRH so offspring born around this time have a higher rate of survival
What are sex steroid hormones?
Oesterogen, progesterone and testoesterone
How do levels of testoesterone in males and females compare?
Women have about 10% of the levels found in men
What is the sexually dimorphic nucleus?
An area of the brain that controlls behaviour, larger in men, half the size in gay men
What is top-down arousal?
What is bottom up arousal?
What part of the nervous system controls erections?
The parasympathetic system
What is released by nerve endings when someone gets an erection?
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptides
How does viagra affect the metabolic pathways of an erection?
It interfears with nitric oxide so the arteries release even more