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Flashcards in 8.3 langauge Deck (27)
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1

Aphasia

any specific impairment in the ability to produce or comprehend language
-difficulty: understanding, reading, speaking, writing
frontal lobe, left hemisphere, brocas area
impairment producing language

2

brocas aphasia

impairment in the ability to produce language through speech

3

carl wernicke

can produce language but have trouble comprehending the speech of others
left temporal lobes

4

wernickes aphasia

an impairment in the ability to comprehend spoken language

5

language

a rule base means of communication using spoken, written , or gestural symbols

6

advantages provided by language

1. allows us to communicate about things that are not physically present
2. allows for creating symbols to represent completely novel concepts that may not even exist in reality
3. can be transferred from one generation to the next

7

language productivity

the basic units of language permit an almost infinite number of combinations

8

phonemes

the smallest units of language
they are the units of sound that we use to form words
they dont have any meaning on their own
test
T//E//S//T

9

morphemes

the smallest meaningful units of language
some morphemes like /plant/ are meaning full on their own
you can add non meaningful morphemes to other morphemes and that modifies the meaning /er/
/planter/

10

semantics

the study of how peopl learn the meaning of words

11

orthography

the visual representation of words

12

phonology

the speech based representation of words

13

dyslexia

a particular deficit in reading that can occur in individuals who are otherwise of normal or above average intelligence
primary difficulty seems to be in their translating the orthography of words into their phonological representation

14

syntax

the rules that define the acceptable order of combining words into phrases and sentences
english sentences, require one noun followed by one verbs
more complex sentences emerge by creating phrases out of nouns and verbs : nous phrase followed by a verb phrase

15

syntax noun phrase and verb phrase

noun phrase: all rule following sentences
verb phrase: must ave a noun phrase and a verb phrase

16

pragmatics

non linguistic aspects of our communication with language such as body language, tone of voice, and reliance on cultural expressions that are not to be taken literally
-allows us to capture sentences in a different way
-sarcasm-tone changes meaning
-facial expressions- provide us with a cue as to whether or not to perceive a statement as sarcasm

17

language acquisition

we all seem to develop language effortlessly during childhood through mere exposure
we are born with the ability to produce 200 phonemes, but no languages actually use that many
-english only requires about 40

18

janet werker

observed that very young infants can detect the difference between the different d sound in the two statements
this Doll vs. you Doll
by 10 months of age, infants exposed primarily to english lose the ability to detect the difference between the d phonemes

19

other features of infants that support language acquisition

1. infants prefer speech sounds to other types of sounds
2. infants soon come to prefer phoneme combinations that are common in the language they are exposed to
babies prefers non word browder than bkotder
3. babies also soon come to prefer hearing nouns and verbs over other types of words

20

naming explosion

through infancy and toddlerhood, humans learn so many words, so quickly, it qualifies as a type of explosion

21

fast mapping

very young children appear to learn many words with only one single exposure

22

overgeneralization errors

we goed to the the park
i chased the gooses
these errors are an incorrect, but impressive, applications of a rule that works well in other situations
applying common rules in wrong situation

23

sensitive period

the early period in our lifespan, during which acquisition of language occurs quite easily and naturally

24

cross fostering

placing a chimpanzee to be raised as a member of a human family

25

lexigrams

pressing buttons with a symbol
easier to learn than sign language

26

skeptical concerns about chimpanzees capacity for language

1. no chimpanzee has ever used language to form complex phrases
2.no chimpanzee has transferred their knowledge of language to their children
3. no chimpanzee has generated a new symbol as a way to make reference to an unfamiliar object or event-the productivity function of language
4. working so closely with chimpanzees may compromise the objectivity of the researchers involved in chimpanzee language studies

27

Paul Broca

studied a patient who had a stroke
studied language
patient had a condition called Aphasia
impairment in language production

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