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Flashcards in 8: Sleep Deck (49)
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1

What is sleep?

A periodic, natural reversable behavioural state of disengagement to the environment

2

What kind of sleep do dophins have?

Unihemispheric sleep so the hemispheres take turns - allows them to still swim to the surface for oxygen

3

How does our awareness when asleep change with age?

Children are less easily woken

4

What is alpha activity?

Associated with rest and sleep

5

What is beta activity?

Associated with alertness

6

What waves are seen in stage 1 of sleep?

Theta waves

7

What waves are seen in stage 2 of sleep?

Sleep spindles and K-complexes

8

What are sleep spindles?

Bursts of activity seen in stages 2 and 3 of sleep

9

What are k-complexes?

Negative potentials seen in stage 2 of sleep

10

What waves are seen in stage 3 of sleep?

Delta waves

11

What happenes to the number of spindles as we move from stage 2 into stage 3?

They decrease

12

What waves are seen in stage 4 of sleep?

Delta

13

What sleep stages are characterized as 'slow wave'?

3 and 4

14

What is REM sleep?

Brain activity varies, we have sleep paralysis and dreaming

15

Why do we need sleep?

Restoration
Adaptation

16

Why is sleep important for restoration?

It allows us to restore homeostasis and clear toxic waste products much faster

It's a short period of rest for all neurons

17

Why is sleep important for adaptation?

We can't see well at night so it keeps us out of trouble by keeping us immobile

18

Accross species, what is related to sleep duration?

Metabolic rate

19

How do genetics affect how long we sleep for?

We have a chronotype caused by the length of the per3 gene

20

What gene is associated with duration of sleep?

per3

21

Who stayed awake for 264 hours?

Randy Gardner

22

How long did Randy Gardner stay awake for?

264 hours

23

What happened when Randy Gardner had been awake for 2 days?

Irritable, nauseated, memory issues

24

What happened when Randy Gardner had been awake for 4 days?

Fatigued and had delusions

25

What happened when Randy Gardner had been awake for 7 days?

Language issues and tremors

26

How long did Randy Gardner take to recover after the experiment?

2 nights, slept for 14 hours on the first, 10 on the second and then was back to normal

27

What areas are affected by sleep deprivation?

Motor function, cognitive performance, working memory, mood, executive atention

28

What are the main ways sleep are measured?

Patient reported outcomes (Sleep diaries)
Actigraphy (Motor activity)
PSG (Multiple signals)

29

What does PSG stand for?

PolySomnoGrphy

30

What does PSG record?

EEG (Brain), EMG (Muscles), EOG (Eye signals)