8: Leadership and Group Decision Making Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 8: Leadership and Group Decision Making Deck (32)
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1

Are people more creative in a group or when working alone?

There's no difference

2

Do we contribute more ideas in a group or working alone?

We generate twice as many ideas when working alone

3

Why do we generate more ideas when working alone compared to in a group?

Evaluation apprehension
Social loafing
Production matching
Production blocking

4

How can evaluation apprehension be used as an explanation for coming up with less ideas in a group compared to working alone?

We're concerned with making a good impression so worry they won't like our ideas

5

How can social loafing be used as an explanation for coming up with less ideas in a group compared to working alone?

Motivation loss because of the collective nature of the task

6

How can production matching be used as an explanation for coming up with less ideas in a group compared to working alone?

We base our performance on the average of how the other members are performing

7

How can production blocking be used as an explanation for coming up with less ideas in a group compared to working alone?

We're blocked by interruptions and taking turns to listen to others

8

What is groupthink?

A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive group, where members strivings for unity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action

Overestimation of group work and dehumanizing outgroups
Close mindedness to new ideas
Pressure towards uniformity

9

What care the causes of groupthink?

High cohesiveness
Structural factors: Don't think about the wider social context
High stress increases liklihood of groupthink

10

What are the problems with the theory of groupthink?

Based on observations and historical accounts
Analysis the process and no the outcome
It doesn't always produce bad decisions
It's the norms, not the groups that are the issue

11

What is the idea of group memory?

That people are more able to remember tasks if they are in a group than alone

12

What is transactive memory?

Relies on the assumption that different group members will remember different things

Allows group members to remember more

13

How are risky decisions affected by groups?

We make more risky decisions in a group

14

What is polarization in group discussion?

The tendency to produce a more extreme group decision to the member's pre-discussion opinion

15

How can cultural value be used to explain polarization?

In public, we behave in ways that might not fit our internal ideas

We want to fit in with other people but also think our own opinions are correct

16

How can persuasion be used to explain polarization?

Individuals are exposed to new arguemtns for extreme positions

17

How does social identity explain polarization?

When focused on group membership, we shift towards the norm

18

What are some explanations for leadership?

Personality theory
Leader behaviour
Situational perspectives
Contingency theory
Leadership is a process

19

What is leadership?

The process where an individual influences a group in a way that inspires them to achieve the same goal they have defined as being important

20

What is the great man theory?

Leaders posess universal attributes which mean they are born great

21

What is the situational perspective of leadership?

Leaders are those that best meet the requirements of a group in that current situation

22

What is the atmosphere of an autocratic leader?

Aggression
Dependence
Self-orientated

23

What is the productivity of a group with an autocratic leader?

When leader is present, productivity is high

When leader is absent, productivity is low

24

What is the atmosphere of a democratic leader?

Friendly
Group orientated
Task orientated

25

What is the productivity of a group when they have a democratic leader?

High all the time

26

What roles do leaders take within the group?

Task specialist

Socioemotional specialist

27

What is a task specialist?

They initiate actions and get members to concentrate on the task

28

What is a socioemotional specialist?

They are in tune with how the group feels and how they respond to the task

29

Who came up with contingency theory?

Fiedler

30

What is contingency theory?

Effectiveness of task orientated vs socio-emotional leaders is contingent on their match with the situation

When situational control is at an extreme, task orientated leaders are most effective