Flashcards in 8. Evolution and Psychopathology/ Mental health Core Deck (43)
what is support for disengagement theory?
• There is support or the idea that depressed individuals experience greater levels of mortality (Cuijpers & Smit, 2002)
issues with the disengagement theory?
• But concept of group selection is still heavily debated within the literature
• Does not deal particularly well with how the trait is transmitted.
o I.e. if all those carrying the gene die more quickly than any other member of the population, how does the gene propagate? If it is promoting with withdrawal from society and die more quickly then where is a person going to get the opportunity to mate and pass on these genes.
who developed the PATHOS-D hypothesis and what does it stand for?
Raison & Miller, 2013
refers to pathogen host defence
what does PATHOS-D posit?
• Suggests that depression evolved as a mechanism for combating bacterial infection.
• Halts the spread of disease at the behavioural level through social withdrawal (Anders, Tanak & Kinney, 2013)
• Suggests that alleles associated with immunological response and those associated with depressive responses are in fact one in the same.
support for PATHOS-D hypothesis
• Evidence of an increase in reported depression following sickness (Dantzer, 2009; Wichers et al., 2006)
• Also evidence of persistent inflammatory response in depressed individuals (Dowlati et al., 2010
what is good about the PATHOS-D hypothesis?
• Only hypothesis to try and account for the novel observation of enhanced inflammatory response in depressed individuals
issues with PATHOS-D hypothesis
• Cannot account for depressive episodes triggered by non-immunological events
• Not necessarily incompatible with another account, if we accept that depression alleles and immunological alleles are one and the same.
• Really nice way for accounting for immunological findings can be integrated with another theory.
who developed the Analytical Rumination Hypothesis? and what does it posit?
Andrews & Thomson, 2009
• Depression is a mechanism for when we encounter problems which leads to rumination which then results in a solution.
• Purports than depression is an evolved mechanism for the promotion of rumination
• Occurs in the face of complex problems (predominantly social), but can occur whenever some environmental change arises
• Depression is an ‘involuntary brake’ and so symptoms reflect a cessation in engagement of survival activities
• Rumination is then promoted as a means of dedicating cognitive resources to the problem encountered.
what predictions can be made based on the Analytical Rumination Hypothesis
1) Rumination varies as a function of low mood and depression
2) Rumination should also vary as a function of task difficulty
3) those who engage more frequently in rumination will be better problem solvers
evidence to support Analytical rumination hypothesis
some evidence to support prediction 3- that those who engage more frequently in rumination will be better problem solvers.
o Financial trends analysis and mood (Au et al., 2003)- individuals who experienced low mood were better at financial trends analysis and made better decisions.
o Ability in a modified Prisoner’s dilemma (Hokanson et al., 1980)- those with low mood/ some depressed patients did better.
what was issue with indirect evidence supporting prediction 3 (those who engage more frequently in rumination will be better problem solvers.) of rumination hypothesis & what has been done
• Problem is that they did not measure rumination directly but depression assuming that rumination is a property of depression…
So….to solve this…
Birch, Dharam & Boothroyd unpublished dissertation data- Preliminary study suggests there is some direct link between problem solving and rumination.
• Looked for a direct association between rumination and problem solving across a range of tasks.
o Modified prisoner’s dilemma paradigm (social problem)- saw computer (participant) response before you make ow decision so can reward/ punish/ be equal.
o Modified Iowa Gambling task (risk problem)- different decks have different values (2 bad decks two good decks) modified so that had to make a decision about each deck for each trial.
o Raven’s advanced Progressive Matrices (abstract problem)
• Multiple measures of rumination
o Ruminative response scale
o Distressing thoughts questionnaire- rumination subscale.
• Significant associations between levels of rumination and problem solving ability in two out of three tasks (prisoners and gambling).
• No association between rumination and abstract problem solving
o See arguments of evolutionary appropriateness and task design- does it actually tap into something that is evolutionary relevant?
• Problem solving ability in the tasks could be differentiated by the type of rumination
o Reflective- more adaptive very concrete thought selection and problem – associated with giving self more money in prisoners and avoid large punishment in Iwoah.
o Brooding- what if thinking more destructive e.g. what if this hadn’t happened to me. People avoid more subtle punishments- better in Iwoah finding subtle decks that slowly chip away at money.
o Anxious – external focus more association with punishing others in the prisoners task more focus on external sources.
What ultimately needs to be considered when revisiting the Analytical Rumination Hypothesis
The ARH- revisited
• Rumination may indeed promote problem solving ability, but it is critical to consider the type of rumination involved, and the relative frequency of this rumination.
• Not all ‘maladaptive’ ruminations may be maladaptive.
• So long as reflective rumination is the dominant process, maladaptive ruminations (i.e. brooding, anxious) may in fact have some benefits
• Negative impact of ‘maladaptive’ ruminations attenuated by reflextion
• Low mood serves to promote reflective rumination predominantly, but when transitioning to depression, there is a breakdown in the ability to attenuate maladaptive ruminations.