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Prior to cannulating an ej vein is is most important to:

A) cleanse the puncture site
B) palpate for the carotid pulse
C) turn the pt head to the side
D) occlude the vein distal to the puncture site



If you discover that an IV is not flowing sufficiently you should:

A) check the height of the bag
B) reapply the constricting band
C) discontinue the IV solution
D) pull back on the IV catheter



Edema at the IV catheter site and continued IV flow after occlusion of the vein above the insertion site are signs of:

A) phlebitis
B) infection
C) infiltration
D) thrombophlebitis



Thrombophlebitis is MOST commonly caused by:

A) abuse of IV drugs
B) long term IV therapy
C) lapses in aseptic technique
D) any type of hypotonic solution



When determining wether an occluded IV line should be reestablished you should:

A) attempt to improve the IV flow rate by applying a pressure infuser device around the IV bag
B) infuse 10ml of normal saline through the injection port to attempt to disrupt the occlusion
C) lower the IV bag below the level of the pt heart and observe for blood return in the IV tubing
D) apply manual pressure to the IV bag while observing for a sudden increase in the IV flow rate



Vein irritation during IV therapy is usually caused by:

A) the formation of a thrombus
B) an infusion rate that is too rapid
C) contaminates in the IV solution
D) IV solutions that are not warmed



Pain, tenderness and blood rapidly pooling around the IV site are MOST indicative of:

A) hematoma
B) phlebitis
C) vein occlusion
D) thrombophlebitis



Which of the following condition or situations is associated with the highest risk of vein rupture during IV cannulation:

A) diabetes
B) hypertension
C) ibuprofen use
D) atherosclerosis



Damage to nerves, tendons or ligaments would most likely occur during venipuncture if:

A) the pt as diabetes
B) the pt moves suddenly
C) the selected IV site is near a joint
D) a small vein in the hand is cannulated



To avoid inadvertently cannulating an artery you should:

A) routinely cannulate veins on the anterior aspect of the arm
B) refrain from attempting to cannulate an ej vein
C) recall the most pt veins and arteries are transposisioned
D) always check for a pulse in any vessel you intend to cannulate



The most prominent clinical indicator of a pyrogenic reaction is

A) fever
B) nausea
C) headache
C) vascular collapse



Pyrogenic reactions can be largely avoided by:

A) determining if the pt has any allergies
B) inspecting the IV solution carefully before use
C) premeditating the pt with 1 gram of acetaminophen
D) keeping the piercing spike sterile after it is exposed



The most common cause of circulatory overload in the prehospital setting is:

A) overestimating the pt baseline hydration level and giving too much fluid
B) failure to readjust the drip rate after flushing the IV line immediately after insertion
C) not using volutrol admin set when administering IV fluids to the elderly
D) administering excessive crystalloid solutions to pts with hypovolemic shck



Signs and symptoms of circulatory overload include:

A) diarrhea
B) headache
C) hypertension
D) collapsed jugular veins



During IV therapy the presence of shortness of breath unequal breath sounds and cyanosis despite administration of high flow O2 should make you most suspicious for:

A) an air embolus
B) circulatory overload
C) acute pulmonary edema
D) spontaneous pneumothorax



A vasovagal reaction is the result of:

A) acute bradycardia
B) sudden hypertension
C) massive vasoconstriction
D) dilation of the vasculature



A lavender topped blood tube:

A) contains preservative to help determine blood clotting factors
B) is used to determine a pt hematocrit and hemoglobin levels
C) contains no additives and is intended to clot if the blood typing is needed
D) is filled with heparin and is used to evaluate electrolyte and glucose levels



The signs and symptoms that occur when an IV catheter is sheared and becomes a free floating segment in the circulatory system most closely resemble:

A) pneumothorax
B) san air embolus
C) left sided heart failure
D) right sided heart failure



Which of the following blood tubes contains the preservative EDTA and is used to determine a pt prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time:

A) red top
B) green top
C) blue top
D) lavender top



IO infusion is a technique of administering IV fluids and meds into:

A) IO space of a long bone
B) the diaphysis of he femur or humorous
C) the epiphysis of the proximal tibia
D) a large vein that lies deep inside the neck



The IO space collectively comprises the _______ bone of the ________ and he medullary cavity of the _________.

A) tibial, upper leg, diaphysis
B) cancellous, epiphysis, diaphysis
C) diaphyseal, epiphysis, proximal tibia
D) epiphyseal, diaphysis, cancellous bone



If the posterior aspect of the leg rapidly becomes edematous during IO infusion you should:

A) elevate the lower extremity
B) suspect extravasation of fluid
C) assume that the leg is fractured
D) carefully reposition the IO needle



Which of the following statements regarding osteomyelitis is NOT correct:

A) is the result of an infection
B) is an inflammation of the bone and muscle
C) occurs in up to 15* of IO infusions
D) the risk during IO infusion is relatively low



When infusing crystalloid solutions through an IO catheter in an unconscious adult you should:

A) give 200ml at a time
B) use pressure infuser device
C) deliver the solution via syringe
D) inject lidocaine prior to the infusion