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Flashcards in 7.2 long term memory Deck (50)
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declarative (or explicit) memory

memories that involve our conscious minds and that we can describe verbally


non- declarative or implicit memory

memory for previously learned skills and associations that guide our thoughts, feelings and actions automatically and unconsciously


episodic memory

memory for specific, autobiographical events in ones life
remembering the last time you went to the movies


types of declarative memory



semantic memory

general knowledge the world that does not involve accessing the details of any particular life experience
_knowing the difference b/w elf and leprechaun


non declarative memory includes

all of the unconscious influences of memory and there is a considerable amount of knowledge below the surface of our conscious minds


Edouard claparede

paid visits to amnesiac patients
he visited a lady who couldnt remember any events after a brain injury
shook a ladies hand with a pin in it and she was annoyed
the next day he returned and she forgot she ever met him but refused to shake his hand, but had no idea why she didn't want to she just had a feeling it was a bad idea
an experience can alter a persons before without any conscious memory for the experience


types of non declarative memory

procedural memory
classically conditioned responses


procedural memory

knowledge about how to perform actions


classically conditioned responses

we talked about these when we talked about learning principles



common method for measuring the influence of non declarative memories
-involves an unconscious influence of an experience on our subsequent thoughts or behaviours
*word stem completion task


word stem completion task

what words people see earlier in the session will influence how they complete the word stems, even when they can't remember having seen the words earlier in the experiment


donald hebb

our experiences changes the structure of our brains, how learning works
cells that fire together, wire together
long term potentiation


long term potentiation

when neurons across the brain fire at the same time, the bonds b/w them get stronger
when one ore more of the neurons fire in the future, the others will also be more likely to fire
ex. watermelon stimulates and more details coming to mind
what type of watermelons to buy comes from previous shopping trip memory



through longterm potentiation, the capacity to remember an event over the long term relies on a binding together of strong connections between the pattern of neural firing that is associated with that experience


H.M henry molaison

he played a large role in the field of memory
this man is completely unable to appreciate the role he played in the history of psychology, he wouldn't be able to remember
underwent brain surgery as treatment for epileptic seizures
he was 27
surgery successfully eliminated his seizures, the side effect was anterograde amnesia


anterograde amnesia

an inability to remember any events occurring after some brain altering experience
after his surgery in 1953, h.m lived another 60 years without being able to consciously remember anything that happened during that time
he could learn new skills like tracing a picture the way it appeared on a page through the reflection on a mirror but didnt remember doing it before


the hippocampus

removed from hms brain
was important for creating long term declarative types of memory
hms surgery removed structures in the limbic system the hippocampus and amygdala
hippocampus is most critical for the formation of new memories and consolidation of memories prior to accident


retrograde amnesia

impairment in remembering experiences that occurred for some period of time before the brain trauma or surgery


forgetting vs. remembering

depends on factors present at encoding and retrieval



info is converted for storage



info is retained in memory



info is recovered from memory when needed


rote learning

merely repeating info over and over again with the goal of remembering it for the long term


craik and watkins study

1. ppl read a 4 digit # and tried to remember it
2.meanwhile, they repeated a given word until the experimenter told them to stop (b/w 2 and 18 secs) each trial they were given a different word to repeat
3.as soon as the experimenter said stop they tried to recall the number
4. after several trials of steps 1-3, ppl were asked to recall the words that they had repeated to themselves
the amount of time repeating words had no effect on the likelihood of remembering them
mindless repetition and rote learning is also called maintenance rehearsal


maintenance rehearsal

supports keeping info active in working memory, but is a poor way of achieving long term remembering


elaborative rehearsal

thinking about the info we want to remember later in as many different ways as possible at the level of meaning


levels of processing framework for elaborative rehearsal

shallow processing
intermediate processing
deep processing


shallow processing

thinking about the appearance of the word (font, capital or lowercase letters)
BUTTON in lower or upper case letters?


intermediate processing

thinking about what a word sounds like
ex. does FOREST rhyme with florist?

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