Flashcards in 7: People in Groups Deck (52)
What types of group are there?
What is a common bond group?
Focused on relationships with other group members such as young mothers in a baby group
Normally for individual benifit
Favoured by women
What is a common identity group?
Focused on the identity of the group as a whole.
Benifits the whole group
Favoured by men
What is an aggregate group?
A group of people that aren't tied together such as people in a waiting room
What are the two stances that researchers can take when looking into group behaviour?
What is the individualistc stance in looking into group behaviour?
Treating behaviour as an additive effect of people interacting with each other. Groups are just people operating together
What is the collectivistic stance in looking into group behaviour?
The group as a whole is responsible for ow it operates. When people are in groups, they operate differently to how they would behave as an individual
What is cohesiveness
The property of a group that binds them together and gives them meaning. It's higher if we share similar features with them
What is social facilitation?
When we are around people, we become aroused and perform better on simple tasks
What is social inhebition?
When performing a difficult task around others, we perform worse
What is Zajonc drive theory?
We are innately aroused in the presence of others.
If the response is simple, it leads to social facilitation, if it's difficult, it leads to social inhebition
Which tasks lead to social inhebition?
Which tasks lead to social facilitation?
Who came up with the evauation apprehension model?
What is the evaluation apprehension model?
Arousal happens because we learn that we are going to be evaluated by others
What is distraction conflict theory?
The presence of others creates an attentional conflict because we don't know who to play attention to.
We don't need as many recourses for easy tasks so there's less effect
What is the Ringelmann effect?
The bigger the group we're working in, the less we contribute
What are two explanations for the Ringelmann effect?
What is social loafing?
Reduction in individual effort when working on a collective task
What is the free-ride effect?
Someone who exploits shared public recourse without contributing to it's maintence
What are some explanations for social loafing?
Matching to standard
How is output equity used to explain social loafing?
They don't want to try as hard and assume other people aren't trying as hard either
How is evaluative apprehension used to explain social loafing?
The presence of others gives anonymity to those who are unmotivated
How is matching to standard used to explain social loafing?
People have no clear performance standard to match
What factors affect social loafing?
How does task attractivness affect social loafing?
If the task is more appealing, people are less likely to loaf
How does competitiveness affect social loafing?
It can reverse loafing if we're competing with an outgroup
How does importance affect social loafing?
The more important the task, the more effort we put in
How does collectivism affect loafing?
Collectivistic cultures put in more effort as they care more about the group as a whole