7: People in Groups Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 7: People in Groups Deck (52)
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1

What types of group are there?

Common bond

Common identity

Aggregates

2

What is a common bond group?

Focused on relationships with other group members such as young mothers in a baby group

Normally for individual benifit

Favoured by women

3

What is a common identity group?

Focused on the identity of the group as a whole.

Benifits the whole group

Favoured by men

4

What is an aggregate group?

A group of people that aren't tied together such as people in a waiting room

5

What are the two stances that researchers can take when looking into group behaviour?

Individualistic

Collectivistic

6

What is the individualistc stance in looking into group behaviour?

Treating behaviour as an additive effect of people interacting with each other. Groups are just people operating together

7

What is the collectivistic stance in looking into group behaviour?

The group as a whole is responsible for ow it operates. When people are in groups, they operate differently to how they would behave as an individual

8

What is cohesiveness

The property of a group that binds them together and gives them meaning. It's higher if we share similar features with them

9

What is social facilitation?

When we are around people, we become aroused and perform better on simple tasks

10

What is social inhebition?

When performing a difficult task around others, we perform worse

11

What is Zajonc drive theory?

We are innately aroused in the presence of others.

If the response is simple, it leads to social facilitation, if it's difficult, it leads to social inhebition

12

Which tasks lead to social inhebition?

Difficult ones

13

Which tasks lead to social facilitation?

Easy ones

14

Who came up with the evauation apprehension model?

Cottrell

15

What is the evaluation apprehension model?

Arousal happens because we learn that we are going to be evaluated by others

16

What is distraction conflict theory?

The presence of others creates an attentional conflict because we don't know who to play attention to.

We don't need as many recourses for easy tasks so there's less effect

17

What is the Ringelmann effect?

The bigger the group we're working in, the less we contribute

18

What are two explanations for the Ringelmann effect?

Coordination loss

Motivation loss

19

What is social loafing?

Reduction in individual effort when working on a collective task

20

What is the free-ride effect?

Someone who exploits shared public recourse without contributing to it's maintence

21

What are some explanations for social loafing?

Output equity

Evaluative apprehension

Matching to standard

22

How is output equity used to explain social loafing?

They don't want to try as hard and assume other people aren't trying as hard either

23

How is evaluative apprehension used to explain social loafing?

The presence of others gives anonymity to those who are unmotivated

24

How is matching to standard used to explain social loafing?

People have no clear performance standard to match

25

What factors affect social loafing?

Task attractivenss
Competitiveness
Importance
Collectivistic
Salient identity

26

How does task attractivness affect social loafing?

If the task is more appealing, people are less likely to loaf

27

How does competitiveness affect social loafing?

It can reverse loafing if we're competing with an outgroup

28

How does importance affect social loafing?

The more important the task, the more effort we put in

29

How does collectivism affect loafing?

Collectivistic cultures put in more effort as they care more about the group as a whole

30

How does salient identity affect social loafing?

Loafing can be stopped if we identify with the group such as wearing group t shirts