7: Aquired brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 7: Aquired brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases Deck (46)
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1

In animal studies, what was the result of leisons on the hippocampus?

Mild memory problems

2

In animal studies, what was the result of leisons on the hippocampus and amygdala?

Mild memory problems

3

In animal studies, what was the result of leisons on the hippocampus and rhinal cortex?

Severe memory problems

4

What is the main function of the rhinal cortex?

Combining sensory input from cortical association areas and inputting them into the hippocampus

5

How is the hippocampus linked to spatial memory?

Neurons can be specific to places in space. When participants were asked to recall an area, the corresponding neurons were activated which shows the hippocampus provides spatial context

6

What is Korsakoff's syndrome?

Caused by a thymine deficiency due to alcohol. Results in cortical atrophy and damage to the diensephalon so the hippocampus can't communicate with other areas of the brain

Severe reterograde and anterograde amnesia

7

How is the consolidation of memories linked to the hippocampus?

Memories first rely completely on the hippocampus and are eventually consolidated into the wider cortex each time the memory is recalled

8

What causes strokes generally?

A disruption of blood supply to the brain

9

What is an ischemic stroke?

Oxygen supply to the brain is affected.
Can be either embolic or thrombotic

To do with clots

10

What is a thrombotic stroke?

Caused by a clot in the brain's blood vessels

11

What is an embolic stroke?

Caused by a clot somewhere in the body disrupting oxygen to the brain

12

What is a hemorrhagic stroke?

The rupture of blood vessels in the brain

13

In what timeframe can motor skills be recovered after a stroke?

3 months

14

In what timeframe can cognitive skills be recovered after a stroke?

6 months

15

What are the language defects resulting from a stroke?

Aphasia
Agraphia
Alexia

16

What is aphasia?

Problems producing speech

17

How is aphasia caused?

Damage to the left hemisphere in the frontal and temporal areas

18

What is agraphia?

Problems with spelling and writing

19

How is agraphia caused?

Damage to the left hemisphere visual areas involved in writing

20

What is alexia?

Problems with reading

21

How is alexia caused?

Damage to the visual and temporal areas of the left hemisphere

22

What is the dual route theory of reading? (Alexia)

Dorsal route decodes words and maps them onto sounds

Ventral route directly mapps words to their meaning

23

What is dementia?

The loss of cognitive functioning that affects daily life and activities

24

How does Alzheimer's progress?

Over around 10 years it progresses from mild to severe
First issues in memory but later mood disturbances and a loss of independence

25

What is the prevelence for Alzheimer's?

0.5% at 55 years old and the risk doubles every 5 years

At 80 years old, prevelence is at 15-20%

26

What parts of the working memory model are affected by Alzheimer's?

Visuospatial sketchpad and central executive

27

What is the main Alzheimer's treatment?

cholinesterase inhibitors which increase acetylcholine in the brain as it has a role in learning and memory

28

What is the cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer's?

There are reduced levels of acetylcholine in the brain of patients and it can be seen in the early stages of Alzheimer's as well.

29

How effective are cholinesterase inhibitors as treatment for Alzheimer's?

Effective in half of patients for 2 years before becoming ineffective

When they're taken off the drug, they deline to where they would have been if the drug had never been given - it doesn't slow the disease

30

What is the role of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's?

Build up makes learning more difficult and affects the transmission of neurons