Flashcards in 59 Cortical Locations Deck (71)
What is the front back division of the brain?
Front is MOTOR
Back is SENSORY
Using the words Convergent or Divergent, which is related to the Motor or Sensory hemispheres?
Front, Motor, Convergent
Back, Sensory, Divergent
Using the words Executive vs Sensory memory, which is related to the motor or sensory hemispheres?
Front Motor Convergent Executive Memory
Back Sensory Divergent Sensory Memory
Note: There are different areas of the cortex that are more ancient or more modern phylogenetically. Interestingly, these correspond to the age in a person's life when the neurons of each section complete their myelination.
Ancient = earlier myelination = primary cortices
In between = unimodal cortices (premotor cortex and unimodal sensory area)
Modern = later myelination = multimodal association cortices
What is a multimodal cortex?
aka association cortex combines input from multiple sensory and motor areas of the brain and are used for memory, planning, language, math, logic, and awareness.
What are the three multimodal cortices that we learned about in class?
Parietal Association Cortex
Temporal Associate Cortex
Prefrontal Association Cortex
Where is the Parietal Association Cortex located?
Brodmann area 7 and 39 at the intersection of the somatosensory and visual cortex.
What is the function of the parietal association cortex?
Spatial localization and attention (attention proportional to the amount of neuron firing)
The sense of the body in space
The perception of "agency"aka sense of "self" (ie, the feeling that one is in charge of making decisions)
What deficits occur with lesions to the parietal association cortex?
Inability to recognize objects by touch (tactile agnosia)
Visuospatial deficits (eg optic ataxia)
Contralateral Neglect Syndrome
Where are locations of "working" memory aka very short term memory?
Frontal and Parietal Cortices
What percentage of people are Right vs Left hemisphere dominant?
How is dominance defined?
5% are right dominant
95% are left dominant
Dominance is defined as what side of the brain a person's language area is mostly located.
More on R/L balance later…
What is "Neglect" in neuroscience?
The inability to perceive objects in the environment.
What is Contralateral Neglect Syndrome?
Damage to the non-dominant parietal hemisphere which leads to non-perception of the contralateral visual field.
Explain why Contralateral Neglect Syndrome must be damage to the non-dominant side.
The non-dominant parietal lobe sees both sides of the visual field.
The dominant parietal lobe only sees the contralateral side of the visual field.
Therefore, if damage is done to the non-dominant side, then the patient only sees one side of the visual field.
If damage is done to the dominant side, then the patients can still see both sides of the visual field, although not perfectly.
What is Balint's Syndrome?
Triad of symptoms...
SIMULTANAGNOSIA >> the inability to perceive the visual field as a whole; the inability to percieve more than one object at a time
OPTIC APRAXIA >> deficits in visual scanning through the visual field
OPTIC ATAXIA >> deficits in hand-eye coordination; the inability to move the hand to specific objects in the visual field.
What is SIMULTANAGNOSIA?
the inability to perceive the visual field as a whole; the inability to percieve more than one object at a time
What is OPTIC APRAXIA?
deficits in visual scanning through the visual field
What is OPTIC ATAXIA?
deficits in hand-eye coordination; the inability to move the hand to specific objects in the visual field.
What is TACTILE AGNOSIA aka ASTEREOAGNOSIA?
The inability to identify objects by touch despite normal sensory ability.
This task requires the interaction of somatosensory (touch) and visual (3D visualization of the object based on touch) and integration of those stimuli at the parietal multimodal cortex.
Where is the Temporal Association Cortex?
In the temporal lobe
Brodmann's areas 21 and 22
What is the function of the Temporal Association Cortex?
Processes AUDITORY and VISUAL information.
Important for OBJECT RECOGNITION and LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION.
Important for FACIAL RECOGNITION.
What deficits occur with lesions to the temporal association cortex?
VISUAL AGNOSIA: Inability to recognize objects by sight.
PROSOPAGNOSIA: Inability to recognize faces (especially after lesions to the NON-DOMINANT inferior temporal lobe).
AUDITORY AGNOSIA: inability to recognize or make sense of complex sounds (such as words).
RECEPTIVE APHASIA (“Wernicke’s”): deficits in language comprehension.
ACULCULIA or DYSCALCULIA: impaired arithmetic functions. Damage to dominant temporal lobe including the inferior region (involved in recognizing numbers) and the angular gyrus. The non-dominant hemisphere can participate in higher order math functions that aren’t as well localized as the ability to do simple calculations.
What is PROSOPAGNOSIA?
Where is the lesion?
Inability to recognize faces (especially after lesions to the NON-DOMINANT inferior temporal lobe).
What is AUDITORY AGNOSIA?
Inability to recognize or make sense of complex sounds (such as words).
What is RECEPTIVE AGNOSIA akaWERNICKE'S?
Deficits in language comprehension.
What is ACULCULIA aka DYSCALCULIA?
What locations can this occur in?
Impaired arithmetic functions.
Damage to DOMINANT TEMPORAL LOBE including the INFERIOR REGION (involved in recognizing numbers) and the ANGULAR GYRUS.
The NON-DOMINANT hemisphere can participate in higher order math functions that aren’t as well localized as the ability to do simple calculations.
What are FACE CELLS?
Where are they located?
Face cells fire when they look at specific faces at a specific angle.
Located in the inferior temporal cortex.
Note: ppt vs notes had different level of detail for the Frontal Association Cortex.
ppt: What Brodmanns' areas is the Frontal Association Cortex?
9, 10, 11, 12, and 46