Flashcards in 4.8 The Balance Between Markets And Intervention Deck (36)
What are market orientated policies?
Dynamic, outward looking, macroeconomic policies used to stimulate economic growth and development via market forces.
What do market oriented policies focus on?
Increasing the productive capacity of the economy by improving healthcare, education and infrastructure to achieve economic development. They also focus on improving the supply side f the economy by using the price mechanism and liberalised capital flows between countries.
What are advantages of market oriented policies?
Market forces allocate resources efficiently thus enhancing economic development such policies also create incentives to invest in the economy.
What are examples of market oriented policies?
Labour market reforms
What is deregulation?
Refers to the reduction or removal of rules and regulations in a particular industry therefore creating a grater degree of competition and encouraging market forces to allocate resources.
What is trade liberalisation?
Refers to policies that encourage free trade, including the free movement of capital flows, by removing barriers to international trade. The IMF believes that trade liberalisation promotes economic growth, development and poverty reduction.
What is privatisation?
Process of transferring ownership of public sector assets to private sector ownership. Private sector firms driven by financial motives are argued to be more economically efficient than bureaucrats running public sector organisations.
What are labour market reforms?
Policies that remove inefficiencies in the labour market thereby creating greater flexibility and productivity.
What are tax reforms?
Lower rates of income tax and corporation tax create incentives to work and to supply, tax reforms ca motivate people to seek employment opportunities and firms give greater incentives for firms to raise output thus achieving growth and development.
What are strengths of market orientated policies?
Benefits of free trade
What are the benefits of efficiency?
Resources are allocated more efficiently than through government intervention in economic activity.
What are the benefits of competitiveness?
These policier help to improve labour market flexibility and productivity resulting in a more internationally competitive labour force.
What are the benefits of economic growth?
The profit motive in free market encourages people to work hard and firms to take entrepreneurial risks . Thus market orientated policies have a positive impact on economic growth.
What are the benefits of free trade?
Can lead to increased consumer choice, lower prices and improved quality they also enable firms to sell to more customers befog the borders of the country this inevitably contributes to growth and development.
What are the benefits of investment opportunities ?
The liberalisation of trade and capital flows reduces barriers to international trade and exchange. This is an important factor in attracting FDI.
What are the weaknesses of market orientated policies?
Development of a dual economy
What is the weakness of market failure?
Inability of any market oriented policy to deal with market failure is its main weakness. LEDCs also lack sufficient provision of merit goods.
What is the weakness of development of a dual economy?
occurs when two distinct economic sectors exist within a country with different level of development. It is common in LEDCs with a low income sector catering for local demand and another for export driven international markets.
What is the weakness of income inequalities?
Advantages of economic development do not automatically trickle down to benefit the poorer member of society so government intervention is required to tackle the problems of income inequalities. Tax reforms can also cause income inequalities.
What are interventionist orientated policies?
Refer to the use of government involvement to stimulate or regulate economic growth and development.
What do interventionist policies focus on?
To correct market deficiencies such as providing adequate housing to ensure a minimum social safety net for all members of society this is highly unlikely to occur in the absence of government intervention. The provision of merit goods and public goods help to improve the economic development for the majority of people in society.
Why is government intervention needed?
To provide appropriate infrastructure, needed to encourage FDI to support economic development.
Why are interventionist policies used?
Used to protect the welfare of workers, also used to protect the welfare of consumers.
What are the strength of interventionist policies?
Provision of infrastructure
Investment in human capital
Provision of a stable macroeconomic economy
Provision of a social safety net
What are the strength of provision of infrastructure?
Without government intervention there wold be a lack of infrastructure which are the physical structured required for the effective operation of society.
What are the strength of investment in human capital?
The private sector is unlikely to provide sufficient investment in human capital through education and training especially in LEDCs. Thus interventionist policies are required to encourage more provision of such merit goods.
What are the strength of provision of a stable macroeconomic economy?
Development requires government intervention to provide a safe and stable economic environment to protect the interest of the economy by interventionist demand and supply side policies.
What are the strength of provision of a social safety net ?
Interventionist polices throng direct government provision and a social welfare system ensure that all members of society have access to basic necessities thus preventing absolute poverty in the economy.
Why is intervention needed?
Interventionist policies can be used to tackle inequalities which hinder the development and prosperity of LEDCs - cultural and historical context in many coteries mean that women are not given the same opportunities as men thus intervention is necessary. Intervention is also required when a country faces a major emergency or disaster. Without intervention the productive capacity of the country will decline along with a fall in FDI and standard of living.