4.1 psychophysics and gestalt psychology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4.1 psychophysics and gestalt psychology Deck (28)
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1

sensory organs

give us the raw material that we need to understand the world through their sensitivity to different types of energy
these organs then send info about that that energy to the brain, which performs further processing

2

perception

the next step of organizing and coming to a meaningful understanding of the info sent by the sensory organs

3

transduction

the process of converting basic sensory info into neural activity that the brain can interpret

4

doctrine of specific nerve energies

proposed by Johannes Muller, 1826
in order to keep organization of our 5 senses, signals from our sensory input are sent to different brain areas, separate brain areas are specialized for different sensory input is called the doctrine of specific nerve energies

5

Orienting responses

occur when surprising and new events capture our attention

6

sensory adaptation

we are set up to devote less attention to very familiar stimuli
(ex. we experience adaptation as boredom when engaging in repetitive, routine activities)

7

psychophysics

gustav fechner
methods for investigating what humans can sense from their environment
-seeks to measure the relationship b/w the energy detected by our sensory organs and our psychological experience of that energy

8

absolute threshold

the minimum amount of energy or amount of a stimulus that we can detect at least 50% of the time

9

difference threshold

the smallest difference b/w stimuli we can detect at least 50% of the time
AKA just noticeable difference (JND)

10

weber's / fechnerk's law

differences in intensity are more difficult to detect at higher intensities

11

signal detection theory

considers both the amount of stimulation that people receive with their personal threshold for reporting the presence of a stimulus or a change in stimulus intensity
-generates 4 different outcomes

12

stimulus present and you saw it

hit

13

stimulus present and you didn't see it

miss

14

stimulus absent and you saw it

false alarm

15

stimulus absent and you didn't see it

correct rejection

16

sensation

the process that our sensory organs perform when they receive information about the world around us, this is the earliest possible step in allowing us to know how to respond effectively to events

17

structuralism

focused on the elementary units of perception...which is like focusing on the separate lines that form a connect the dots image

18

gestalt psychology

-insisted that perception is far more than simply the component parts that go into it
-the idea that something more than the parts emerges out of the way that we organize perceptual features
-origin of motion pictures and animation
*we infer non-existent motion when the images of the two circles are presented repeatedly and close together in time

19

figure-ground principle

we use the visual features of objects to determine which are the objects in our environment and what parts are the background
-what we perceive as figure vs. ground depends on how we organize visual features
faces/goblet example

20

law of similarity

grouping objects together according to features they have in common

21

law of proximity

grouping objects together according to their closeness in space

22

law of continuity

grouping features together when some part of them is obscured by another object

23

law of closure

we infer that features with pieces missing belong to the same object if the features of the object are consistent for that type of inference

24

bottom up processing

perception that derives from sensory inputs

25

top down processing

perception that derives from our prior experiences and expectations
-is to blame for misunderstandings

26

divided attention

attention to multiple sources of input
-divided attention is okay if the all the sources are fairly simple
(ex chew gum, walk, and plan evening)

27

selective attention

won't be aware of any other source of info
(ex. studying, performance is best if you focus only on this task)
con. might miss out on stuff going around them

28

inattentional blindness

when focused on another aspect of the scene, people can even fail to notice a gorilla passing through

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